Free Essay On History - Industrial Revolution

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Industrial Revolution, Revolution, Time, Development, People, World, Economics, America

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/11/26

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the time of major turning point in history, when the transition took place from old production methods such as hand production to new production methods such as the use of machines. Exact time of the Industrial Revolution is not confirm, but in a popular view that period was from the 18th century to19th century. It started in Great Britain and moved to other parts of the world such as Western Europe and the U.S. within few decades.
As a result of Industrial Revolution, new chemical manufacturing as well as iron production processes were introduced, efficiency of water power was improved, steam power was increasingly used, and various mechanical tools and devices were developed. During Industrial Revolution, increase of coal also increased rather than wood and other kinds of biofuels. During that period textiles became the dominant industry for employment, output value, and invested capital; probably due to the increased adoption of modern production methods by that industry.
During the time of Industrial Revolution, nearly every aspect of life and society was influenced. Average income as well as population started showing record breaking persistent growth. Standard of living started improving during that time. Industrial Revolution is also considered as an important event in the history of economics since the start of domestication of animals, plants and fire. It started the era of per-capita economic growth in different capitalist economies. Similarly, it also affected politics of the countries. In Britain, Industrial Revolution strengthened middle class resulting in the necessity of electoral reforms, and more people were able to cast votes.

Influence on Politics

Grant's presidency. Ulysses Grant was the 18th president of the U.S. He was nominated by Republicans in 1868, and his terms of office were from 1869 to 1877. He was elected for two terms. Some of the major events during his terms included completion of transcontinental railroad, ratification of 15th amendment, reconstruction, and battle of Little Bighorn. However, he is thought to be one of the worst presidents in the history of America as many of the events during his terms were scandals resulting in his failure to accomplish much during his two terms. Panic of 1873 was also the time of economic crisis during his time. He worked on the inflationary spending bill resulting in the Fourth Coinage Act in 1873 that removed the use of silver as a currency.
Hayes-Tilden Standoff. After Grant, Republican went for the candidate Rutherford B. Hayes popularly known as “the Great Unknown”. On the other hand, Samuel J. Tilden, who was selected by Democrats, worked against Republicans. His fame was the result of bagging Boss Tweed in New York. Tilden got 184 electoral votes out of the needed 185 votes. Both of them were sent to the questionable states, which were South Caroline, Louisiana, and Florida, where they claimed their victories. With the question, "Which branch of Congress would count the states' votes?", several weeks passed and no progress was seen in politics.
other political considerations. View of “Chartism” started during Industrial Revolution asking for political reform. This was based on the People’s Charter written by William Lovett and other radicals in 1838. That Charter asked for various changes in the Parliamentary System such as vote by ballot, equal electoral constituencies, and annual parliaments.

Influence on Economics

Railroads (include Native Americans). Transportation industry saw huge changes during Industrial Revolution. Britain got over 6,000 miles of railroad tracks by 1850 helping the country in easy transportation of goods. On the other hand, development of the first transcontinental railroad, which was about 1,907 mile in length, was a major step by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies for Native Americans. The development of railroads resulted in the settlement of the West as well as the destruction of Indian cultures. Moreover, railroads were helpful in carrying woods to the plains areas in the west.
Trust Titans. During the period of Industrial Revolution, history saw some good businesspeople including Andrew Carnegie, J. Pierpont Morgan, and John D. Rockefeller. Carnegie became the steel king and combined all processes from mining of ore to selling in the market under his own organization; Rockefeller became a tycoon in oil industry by winning the “trust” of rivals, and Morgan started using his own banking officers in the board of directors of different companies.
Cattle trails. Cattle trails also established during that time that resulted in huge progress in the cattle industry. During that time, Black Cowboys of Texas – Ranchers – took their cattle along the Chisholm Trail as well as the Great Western Cattle Trail to the closest railheads, so that they could send them to the East.

Influence on Society

Immigrants. Huge number of migration to the U.S. took place from 1870 to the World War I. Millions of immigrants; primarily, Irish, Italians, and Chinese, came to the country. They were also helpful in the development of the country and cheap labor.
Social Darwinism. With every progress, society’s survival became the kind of “survival of the fittest”. Competition for jobs and resources resulted in this phenomenon. Successful people were those, who have good jobs and resources, and those people had good amount of money to provide for their family and could be considered as fittest in society having most of the economic and social benefits. On the other hand, poor people were unable to support their family in spite of their hard work.

Emergence of Progressives

Progressivism presented many responses to social and economic problems caused by Industrial Revolution in America. It started as a social movement. Progressives were those, who rejected the social Darwinism, and considered good education and efficient workplace important for society.
Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. Progressivism got strength in 1901 in White House, when Theodore Roosevelt came to presidency. Roosevelt was of opinion that strong corporations are good but they require federal regulation.
Progressive measures. Progressive measures include exposing the evils of corporate greed and fighting with the fear of immigrants. Improving the conditions of common people in terms of life and labor was also among the common measures of Progressives.


Industrial Revolution started from Britain and spread to other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany, and to the U.S. Industrialization became a well-established aspect of the western part of Europe and northeastern region of America by the 19th century. However, the U.S. became the world’s leading industrial nation by the early 20th century. Progressivism also helped the country in gaining strong basis in industrialization and making progresses. During that time, not only technology spreads to other parts of the world but also the knowledge of technology. It can be concluded that Industrial Revolution became a strong point in turning of history from classical world to the new world.

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