Free Regenerative Medicine Essay Sample
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Regenerative medicine is not a new engineering and as suggested by science it has not just originated out of stem cells. Years of research has been induced in understanding the history of regeneration, its developments, and how regeneration helps in advance study of developments and its practical applications in medicine. The present research and development of these regenerative medicines is now a multi-billion dollar industry, and treatments using this engineering costs a fortune. Scientists are currently looking at the capabilities of a single cell that would become the beginning of growth, the stem cells. It can be defined that regenerative medicine develops functional cell, tissue, and organ replacements to heal, substitute or improve natural function that is lost because of hereditary abnormalities, injury, disease, or aging.
Regenerative medicine can be dated back to 8th century BC, where Hesiod in his poem Theogony introduces Prometheus; a man made out of clay. In the poem, Prometheus is seen on the Mount Caucasus, and an eagle would peck at his liver everyday and the liver grew back each day. Cosmas and Damian, the Christian martyrs were well known for their free tissue replacements in Asia, and Cilicia. In 3000 BC, the pre-Incan surgeons are known to have performed trephination (making a burr hole).
There have been progresses, debates and multiple developments in regenerative medicine since the beginning, in the middle, end of 18th century, and beginning of 19th century. The process of regeneration in amphibians was studied intensively in the 18th century. Abraham Trembley has been credited with several publications on the regenerative occurrences on freshwater. The end of 18th century focused on organ transplantation using regenerative medicine. Allograft transplantations on chickens, and dental transplantation were performed by John Hunter, who later donated his body for anatomical dissection after his death.
Many surgeons have applied regenerative medicine in their field of expertise. English surgeon Carpue was the first surgeon to apply methods of nasal restorations, Dieffenbach reconstructed several mechanisms of the face, the anus and the urethra. Reverdin developed a system for skin islet transplantation. Schleiden and Schwann hypothesized a cell theory. Cohnheim hypothesis, formulated by German pathologist Julius Cohnheim proposes that the reparative cells originate from the bloodstream and help in regeneration of wounds. The living cell is the main component of tissue engineering of implantable parts and devices, then the advent of mammalian cell culture technology.
All the previous methods of tissue engineering in ancient days had abandoned the main issues of vascularization. Tissue engineering is known to have grown its roots in the early 1980’s, and this engineering where new connective tissues, or organs are grown, from cells and a collagenous frame to produce a completely functional organ to graft back into the donor host. The year 1995 saw major developments in tissue engineering when Charles Vacanti, sowed a polymeric frame that was in form of a human ear with cartilage cells and fixed it dermatologically on the vertebral of a naked mouse. The images of this new discovery ear-formed bio artificial implant attracted lots of audience on the new biotechnology, and it became a symbol for the emerging field of tissue engineering.
Though tissue engineering has made many development, there are some biological limitations because angiogenic processes were central to homeostasis, and bio-integration of tissue engineered hypotheses. Satellite technologies such as gene technology, and Nano-technology have overtaken tissue engineering. All these developments have contributed in their own way to be constructively called as regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering is also considered by many people; however, the term regenerative medicine is used in the new era.