Good Example Of Essay On Human Resource Management Development
The primary function of human resource management is to increase the effectiveness and contribution of employees in the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. One of the biggest challenges facing human resource management is discrimination at the workplace. There is a long history of people being discriminated on the basis of their color, religious beliefs and practices, gender, and social and cultural background. In order to prevent the misuse of power and discrimination of people seeking employment or those employed, there is a provision for equal employment opportunities.
Human Resources Planning, Recruitment, and Selection
Hiring an employee is among the most difficult responsibilities a HR has to face. An applicant facing an interview will always try to project him or herself as a very suitable candidate for that job, and while some of them may present flattering credentials, a HR manager has to use his or her discretion before selecting a candidate suitable for the relevant position. The HR manager is bound by his or her loyalty to the management, and must ensure that the selected person is hired on merit. It is important to hire the best people in the business in the interest of the organization, for; a mistake in selection can cause immense problems to the organization. Therefore, while interviewing candidates, HRs must follow certain rules. Some of these include:
Hire a person with talent, because a person with talent can be trained in skills development, and not vice-versa.
Project the company’s culture and ethics in the best possible manner
Recruitment is an expensive and time consuming process, and so, when an organization starts the process of hiring, it does so with the hope that they are able to recruit the best possible talent to fill the vacancies. Short listing of candidates is a herculean task, and if the number of applicants is more, the time to get through the process also takes longer time. This is when unethical or discriminatory practices happen. An increasing number of employers fail to apply fair and objective selection and promotion procedures, and while this may be detrimental to the organization’s growth, there is also the possibility that such practices can be used against them in court, says Goldberg & Cockburn (2010). This is where screening of applicants becomes important. Screening of applicants helps in reducing the voluminous size of applicants that will reduce the time in the hiring process. It involves the assessment of candidates through a preliminary interview and psychometric tests (Molander, 1996). Using this procedure, a majority of applicants can be filtered from the final selection. Once this is done, the final selection process can be handled with care, so that a fair and careful assessment of the remaining applicants takes place.
The various stages of the selection process should provide information for taking decisions by both the interviewer and interviewee. Unless the criteria against which applications are measured are clear, it becomes impossible to take a credible decision. Selection of candidates should be based on what the organization wants, what are the areas of expertise desired, and how well the candidates are to fill those criteria. A candidate should be judged by his or her competency. Competency is about a person’s skills and talent, and how well that person can groove with the others. Direct interviews are among the most favoured methods used by organizations in their hiring process, but there are other selection methods too, and these include self assessment, telephone screening, testing and group discussions.
Human Resources Development
Once the interviews are over and the best possible talent(s) has been selected, the HR then takes them through an induction program. Any person, who joins an organization for the first time, goes through an ‘alienated’ period. This alienation is because of the people around him or her. New place, new faces, and a new work environment are sure to unnerve anyone, and when this happens, there is self-doubt and a feeling of insecurity seeping in. As the new atmosphere, the people, the work ethics, and responsibilities vary, the new entrant finds him or her alienated from the rest, and finds it hard to concentrate on their work. This can upset the organization’s strategy and goal, and so, in order to mitigate such complexities, HRs takes the new applicants through an induction program. There have been instances where new recruits left their jobs after a month or two from the date of joining due to frustration and pressure. Induction programs help calm such frustrations and alienation. On joining, the new employee(s) is taken through the various departments of the organization and introduced to the other employees working there. He or she is then taken to their work spot and introduced to others working there. Time is also spent acclimatizing them to their work environment and work, so that they don’t have to look around for assistance.
One of the most important aspects of motivation is retention. If an organization believes in retaining the best talents in the organization, they believe in prophesying their strong commitment to retain them. The problem of social adjustment that newcomers have to face are simply not always appreciated or sympathetically handled. This is a problem that lends a sense of disorientation in a new and unfamiliar environment.
Because of the rigors at work, stress develops, and the early phase of a new employee at his or her job is always stressful and this could lead to frustration and conflict. A few reasons why conflicts occur in organizations with new employees is because, one; there is a norm and if they are not followed, conflicts occur. Most new employees find it hard to accept or merge the acceptable norm or behaviour in their work and this leads to conflict. Two; when working in groups or teams, there could be a lack of cohesiveness, which can counter-productive. This could lead to antagonizing of other teams or groups or individuals who are perceived as non-conformist. The new employees are most likely to fall into this category, and three; the psychological contract may be a source of difficulty in the induction phase. Apart from the normal contract(s) between the employer and the employee about the terms and conditions of the employment, there is a hidden contract that obligates the employer and employee to abide by unwritten communication. Bound by respect, loyalty, and honesty, the unsaid covenant of behaviour is an area where conflicts can arise, and is a major issue in employer-employee relationships (Tyson & York, 2000).
A new recruit would require training before induction. Time spent on training can cause reduction in production, and so, training programs need to be precise and concise. The better the training program, the better it will be for the organization. As HRs must promote and inspire confidence among employees, they need to throw their weight behind them and ensure that they will support them always. Inspiring employees to work out of their skin is an attribute synonymous of a great leader, and it is the same quality that is expected out of HRs. Motivation is the key to performance. Managers can use any technique that instigates oneness, and some of these include developing teamwork, introducing bonuses and promotions, providing incentives and pay rise for meritorious labor. HRs needs to be leaders, not managers, and they should set examples for others to emulate. Recognition of work and rewarding it is paramount to success, and once HRs is able to introduce programs such as those which recognize and reward work, employees are bound to work wholeheartedly.
Training is a vital tool in any organization’s competitive strategy, and training should be based in sync with the organizations strategic planning, performance, and appraisal. In terms of performance management and appraisal, it is suggested that employees assess their own performance, and record if and any deficiencies, so that a personal development plan (PDP) is devised to correct these shortcomings.
Compensation and Benefits
Maslow believes that people have five levels of needs; money to buy food, shelter and clothing, job security, social acceptance, status, and self-actualization. Therefore, targeting these as rewards, managers can motivate his or her workforce. Retaining employees, job rotations, periodic training, pay rise, bonuses, promotions, incentives, recognitions, flexible working hours, and part-ownerships are some of the popular compensation and benefit packages offered by organizations to motivate their employees.
Motivation can improve employees’ focus on business goals; improve their competency; focus better on their customer needs; develop competitive advantages; and reinforce corporate values. Pay and rewards improve employee performance which increases productivity. Supporting the welfare of the employees and their families is another motivating tool. Many employees with their increasingly frenetic lifestyles look for greater flexibility at their workplace, as they try to balance their personal life and professional life. Because they are not able to fulfil or prioritize their obligation to their family and work, they underperform at their work and at home. Therefore, offering flexible working hours for both men and women is a great idea in this direction. This will reduce unnecessary pressure on them that culminates in lack of interest and below par performance at work.
Equal opportunities are an excellent way to approach labour satisfaction. An organisation must bring legislation to curb discrimination against an individual or group. Such a move can influence the workforce to remain sincere to the organisation. Every individual, old or young, black or white, male or female, have some hidden talent in them, and unless the organisation that employs them supports them vehemently, this talent will remain intrinsic and can be a lost opportunity to that organisation. Many companies have now begun to see the true picture of equality and have launched innovate scheme that elicits the hidden talent within an individual. The financial benefits of retaining staff that might otherwise leave due to lack of career development or due to the desire to combine their career with their families will be lost on the company. Opportunities to climb the corporate ladder, to lead by example and prove productivity will only do well to the company and its members. Such opportunities will encourage employees to compete and will cement retention ideology.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) & Affirmative Action (AA)
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) acts as a catalyst against discrimination, and ensure that all employees, irrespective of their differences, have a fair opportunity in the hiring process, in promotion, training, and professional development. Despite this, there still remains discrimination, and to guard against ‘disguised discrimination,’ there is the affirmative action. Affirmative action acts against past and present discriminators, and was introduced to protect women, the disabled, and minority groups.
Safety and Health
The safety and health of employees is important in an organization’s growth strategy. This is not just in the case of protecting employees, but because it could also be directed against the organization. Therefore, the training of staff is pertinent in the context of what could happen in the case of an emergency. Training will help employees understand how they need to handle certain machineries that could cause bodily harm, and by training on them, they will be aware of the dangers and protect themselves from any unforeseen problems. In many cases, the issue of liability has caused serious economical and social problems for employers and employees alike, and this is an area where legal problems have cropped up from time-to-time. Liability, says Garner (2009), “is the responsibility one a person or entity to another person or entity,” and even if one of the stakeholders fail in their duty to protect the other, “they will have to by law, face civil remedy or criminal punishment” (Garner, 2009). Also, if an employee reports sick and comes to work, it is advised that the employee takes the day off and comes back when he or she is healthy enough to continue with their work. This is to ensure that the sick person does not pass on the virus that could spread to other employees as well. Therefore, even though there could be an absence at work, work can continue to function normally as all employees will be able to collectively contribute to the organization’s progress. Allowing a sick person to take leave on medical grounds will only serve to protect the organization from breakdown.
Employee and Labor Relations
Earlier, organizations used to seek only a professional relationship with their employees and refrain from developing a long-lasting relationship with them. However, this has changed, and today, almost all major organizations have some form of relationship with their employees. Experts, both academicians and practitioners, have primed the importance of supervision in a meaningful role in voluntary employee turnover decisions. The LMX theory suggests that the relationship between a supervisor and an employee develops as a result of positive work-related exchanges between them. The relationship between them can be categorized as trustful, loyal, and respectful. Beyond an intermediary level, LMX appears to lose its capacity to affect turnover and other factors associated with perceived benefit of alternate employment (Collins, 2007).
In employee and labor relations, values like trust and respect between employees is most important significant in labor turnover. Contrary to popular beliefs that when corporate values are practiced more employees are more likely to remain, it could be just the opposite. When the level of trust and respect between employees develop, the level of labor turnover will increase. As respect increases, there could be heightened recognition that colleagues could find better opportunities elsewhere. As collegiality amongst employees increase, their priority of respect will shift from their organization to colleagues (Booth & Hamer, 2007).
Employees are more likely to enjoy working for an organization where managers attend to their needs. Labor turnover is related to supervisory style; considerate and authoritarian. Managerial roles or behaviors such as providing good pay and benefits, praise and encouragement, support and training, or ensuring employees receive their correct rest periods at work are some characteristics of note (Booth and Hamer, 2007).
Production is dependent on performance. Workers are an organization’s asset, and it is the manager’s prerogative to identify problems that hamper production and set them right. While faulty machineries can be replaced with new ones, it is not the same with employees. HR Managers have a lot at stake if they are not able to mobilize and execute organizational strategies properly, and to do so, they need to identify, select, train, and retain that talent. If employees are happy, their performance will be exceptionally good. Today, organizations have come to recognize the importance of acknowledging and at the same time rewarding their staff for their dedication and sincerity. Higher pay structures, flexible working hours, motivational activities, and bonuses are part of a company’s strategy to stay competitive and grow.
Booth, S., & Hamer, K. (2007). Labour turnover in the retail industry. International Journal
Of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(4), 289-307. doi:10.1108/09590550710736210
Collins, M. (2007). Understanding the relationships between Leader-Member Exchange
(LMX), Psychological Empowerment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intent in a Limited Service-Restaurant Environment. Etd.ohiolink.edu. Retrieved 25 February 2015, from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1180519045&disposition=inline
Goldberg, D., & Cockburn, M. (2010). Improving Geocode Accuracy with Candidate
Selection Criteria. Transactions in GIS, 14, 149-176. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9671.2010.01211.x
Molander, C. (1996). Human resources at work. Bromley, Kent, England: Chartwell-Bratt.
Tyson, S., & York, A. (2000). Essentials of HRM. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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