# Free Experiment To Investigate How Iron Particle Size Affect The Removal Of The Dyes Report Sample

Type of paper: Report

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2021/02/23

## Results

Data
The following tables and graphs show the data of the experiment:
y=2.01E+4x-7.31E-02
Figure 1: Beer’s law graph generated from the data of part 1 of the experiment

## Sample Calculations

Concentration of the sample containing 5.0mL dye solution (C2).
C1V1=C2V2
In the above formula, C1 and V1 represent the concentration and volume respectively of the first sample of the Indigo Carmine dye solution whose absorbance was measured (4.0mL dye solution). On the other hand, C2 and V2 represent the concentration and volume respectively of the 5.0mL dye solution sample.
7.1E-05*4.0=C2*5
28.4E-055=C2
C2=5.68E-05

## The value was truncated to 2 significant figures to obtain 5.6E-05M

Concentration of the 7.0mL dye solution (C3).
C1V1=C3V3
In the above formula, C1 and V1 represent the concentration and volume respectively of the first sample of the Indigo Carmine dye solution whose absorbance was measured (4.0mL dye solution). On the other hand, C3 and V3 represent the concentration and volume respectively of the 7.0mL dye solution sample.
7.1E-05*4.0=C3*7
28.4E-057=C3
C3=4.05E-05 M
The value was rounded off to the nearest one decimal place and 4.1E-05M was obtained.

## Analysis

Based on the data obtained from the reaction between iron nanoparticles and the dye, the graphs shown in figures 2 to 5 were generated.
Figure 2: Graph showing the change in dye concentration with time in the reaction between the synthesized iron nanoparticles (~60 nm) and the dye
Figure 3: Graph showing the change in dye concentration with time in the reaction between the dye and iron nanoparticles. In this case, iron particle samples with a diameter of 0.04 mm were used.
Figure 4: Graph showing the change in dye concentration with time in the reaction between the dye and iron nanoparticles. In this case, iron particle samples with a diameter of 1 mm were used.
Figure 5: Graph showing the change in dye concentration with time in the reaction between the dye and iron nanoparticles. In this case, iron particle samples with a diameter of 0.105 mm were used.
Figures 2 to 5 indicate the rate of reduction in the concentration of dye in different reactions involving iron nanoparticles of different diameters. All the graphs show that the concentration of dye generally decreases as the reaction proceeds. The graph with the steepest gradient as determined for the first one minute of the reaction is the graph shown in figure 5. This graph represents the reaction between iron nanoparticles whose diameter is 0.105 mm. The order of the steepness of the gradients of the graphs in the first one minute of the reaction process from the least steep to the steepest is as shown: figure 4, figure 3, figure 2, and figure 5. The respective size of the nanometres used is as shown: 1mm, 0.04 mm, 60 nm, and 0.105 mm. The relationship between the size of iron nanoparticles and the ability of the iron nanoparticle to remove the dye is shown in figure 6 below:
Figure 6: The relationship between the size of iron nanoparticles and the gradient (the rate of removal of dye) in the first one minute of the reaction.

## Discussion

Introduction material
The aim of the experiment was to investigate the how iron particle size affects the removal of dye from a solution. The research questions investigated in the experiment are the following:

## How does the size of an iron nanoparticle influence its ability to remove dye from a solution?

How is iron nanoparticle synthesized in the laboratory?
What observations are made when iron nanoparticle is synthesized in the laboratory?
What are the necessary precautions needed to be taken when synthesizing iron nanoparticles?
A hypothesis formulated in this experiment is as shown below:
If the size of iron nanoparticles is increased, then the removal of dye from a solution becomes faster and more efficient.
The independent variable in the experiment was ‘time’ while the concentration of dye was taken as the dependent variable. Control variable was temperature and pH. Both the temperature and pH were controlled by ensuring that all the reactions were carried out under similar conditions of temperature and pH. No change was made to the handout.

## Discussion

During the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, bubbles were seen rising up the beaker. The bubbles were as a result of the formation of hydrogen gas during the experiment. It was also observed that absorbance kept decreasing as the reaction was progressing. This observation is explained by the fact that as the reaction was progressing, the dye was being consumed. Therefore, its concentration kept decreasing as the reaction progressed.
In the experiment, it was found that the reaction in which the iron nanoparticle with a diameter of 0.105 mm recorded the highest rate of dye consumption in the first I minute of the reaction. However, no clear trend was observed in the rate of dye consumption during the first one minute of the reaction. As illustrated in figure 6, the average rate of dye removal decreases with an increase in the size of iron nanoparticles up to zero and then starts increasing as the size of particle increases. This finding does not agree with the hypothesis formed in the beginning of the experiment. Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected.

## Limitations/error

Some of the values of absorbance seemed to be unreliable since they did not show the expected trend. Instead of absorbance decreasing, it failed to follow a specific trend in some reactions. This could have been due to errors. Possible conversion of the some of the nanoparticles to rust during its preparation could have resulted to some error in reading the value of absorbance.

## Improvements

This experiment could be improved by introducing a chemical in the beaker that reacts with rust immediately it is formed but does not react with any other reagent. The experiment could also be improved by ensuring that the dye solution is as free from salinity as possible.

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