Free The Potential Utility Of The Recorder In The Reduction Of Music Literacy Literature Review Example

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Music, Education, Students, Children, Family, Study, Status, Instruction

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/11/23

Why music literacy is a problem

Miksza and Gault (2014) examined the variables on music experiences in a classroom setting. The data were obtained from a 2009 study. The variables included the regularity and length of time that the children have received music instruction, the regularity of using music to teach math, and the fraction of children that receive proper music education outside school. These variables were also examined in relation to socio-economic status, child urbanity, and race. In the study, it was found that there were statistically significant disparities with children in relation to their socio-economic status, urbanity, and race on the variables of music experience. Disparities in the regularity and duration were evident on the basis of socio-economic status. These were especially prominent during the comparison of students who come from the lowest economic group to the highes,t reinforcing “equity gap” in relation to opportunities in music (Miksza & Gault, 2014).
The most prominent indication of the continuing equity gap was on the examination of proper music education outside school in line with the variables. In rural classrooms and in some urban settings, the students have less chances of receiving proper instruction. Meanwhile in the suburban setting, students have more opportunities. With this, affluence is being related to providing proper music education outside the school. Moreover, African American and Hispanic students were less participative in such type of instruction in comparison to the Asian and White students (Miksza & Gault, 2014).The ones who have fewer opportunities and who become less participative to music literacy are the same segment that has been underserved. In this regard, the withdrawal of music course in school has been ineffective and even problematic, failing to form well-rounded individuals through a holistic approach in education.

Issues and implications

The inaccessibility of music education would take its toll on children’s means of expression. Filipovic and Grujic-Garic (2011) studied the influence of music on children’s expression. Through the use of Karlavaris’s Visual Ideas Test, it showed that something have activated in children during an artwork session with background music. In particular, it activated the intellectual-narrative level, which measures children’s presentation abilities as well as the idea-sign level where forming visuals and codes were stimulated. The ones without music during the session, on the other hand, showed lower results in the level of creativity and emotion. This was in comparison to the intellectually-art level. These two components were moving apart, further lowering the creatively emotional level. This would regress to the repetition of learned ideas down to non-creative ideas (Filipovic&Grujic-Garic, 2011).
In this regard, music has been affecting various individual aspects ranging from intellectual art, creative emotional, and shape level. It prompted the experience and perception of children. The study asserted the connection of music and expression.This is because music produces auditory signs that may be integrated across other learning abilities whether auditory, visual, or tactile. From here, interpretation of data inputs from various sources would be encouraged. It has also confirmed that music could expand children’s experience. Thus, the exposure to music and its contents must be carefully selected (Filipovic & Grujic-Garic, 2011).

Music education and general academic considerations

The issues discussed seemed to worsen through the No Child Left Behind Act or the NCLB. West (2012) conferred about the Act having an adverse effect towards music education, especially in schools that failed to achieve what the Act called adequate yearly progress. Since such policy focuses on the basic skills such as reading and writing, music education was reduced or even removed the curriculum. Consequently, music teachers settled with assisting teachers in other subjects. Furthermore, less achieving students were discouraged from taking music courses. In general, the allotted time for music education has been significantly reduced. Due to the Act, music that must be a core subject according to the law seemed to have been reduced into a noncore status (West, 2012).
Nonetheless, paradigms are shifting and teachers are adapting to these change. Since such Act has been pressuring the academe to give a higher priority on the skills that would be utilized for the adequate yearly progress test, music teachers acquired a newfound attitude in teaching music. Teachers are beginning to embrace an art appreciation approach as opposed to the common competitive approach.Certainly, the urgency and importance of learning music has cooled down. They have highlighted the importance of flexibility and adaptability. This attitude extends to considering various job certifications since teaching in music would not be sustainable anymore (West, 2012).

The Effect of population density and socio-economic status on music literacy

With music teachers’ response to the educational policies’ unfavorable stance on music, they are likely to find other subject to teach. This is similarly the case in the Victorian schools of Australia, as stated in Heinrich’s (2012) study. The Victorian schools, however, take notice of the music subject as they have included arts in the new curriculum. The problem lies in staffing. Schools have been struggling to find music teachers, especially in isolated locations.Also, only a small number who have been responding to music job posts were qualified as specialists (Heinrich, 2012).
The pre-service training program for the remaining others is perceived to lack in quality and quantity. Furthermore, the lack of funding and in turn a low compensation is likely unappealing to the prospective teachers. Despite the inclusion of music in the curriculum, the students in these schools, especially the ones lacking in status and funding, would not be taught music properly. The difficulty in staffing, on the other hand, is attributed to geographical and population distribution. The northern regions are the ones struggling the most. Moreover, the southern regions are offering more attractive lifestyle options. Most importantly, these opposing ends have the biggest rural centers with universities. More detailed tests in these institutions are likely the reason for several variations of music programs. This drives the job qualification higher (Heinrich, 2012).

Effect of limited music literacy on general student achievement

Schools settling with teachers who lacked training in order to regulate the population of the musically illiterate are likely contributing to the problem rather than solving it. In the study of Hash (2010), it is found that teachers were uncomfortable in the instruction of music as a subject. It turned out that they have a belief that such instruction must be administered through a specialist. They thought against the notion of classroom teachers being required to teach music. Most significantly, they have less regard for music compared to other subjects. They thought that the nonmusical effects of teaching music, on the other hand, were as important as the musical ones. Nonetheless, they concur that music increases student achievement in other fields. Thus, they were in favor of music integration (Hash, 2010).


Filipovic, S., &Grujic-Garic, G. (2011). The influence of music on the children’s art expression. Journal Plus Education, 7(2), pp. 223-240.
Hash, P. M. (2010).Preservice classroom teachers’ attitude towards music in the elementary curriculum.Journal of Music Teacher Education. doi: 10.1177/1057083709345632
Heinrich, J. (2012). The provision of classroom music programs to regional Victorian primary schools. Australian Journal of Music Education, 2012(2), pp. 45-58.
Miksza, P., &Gault, B. M. (2014). Classroom music experiences of US elementary school children: An analysis of the early childhood longitudinal study of 1998-1999. Journal of Research in Music Education. doi: 10.1177/0022429413519822
West, C. (2012). Teaching music in an era of high-stakes testing and budget reductions. Arts Education Policy Review, 113(2), pp. 75-79.

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