Good Critical Thinking On Key
Persuasive essays are written arguments meant to persuade the reader to agree with the sentiments, as well as the opinions the writer. Persuasive arguments aim at influencing the viewpoint of the reader thus affecting their decisions, judgments, or actions after reading. The essays’ strong points lie in the proper use of sound reasoning and evidence beyond reasonable doubt.
In wring a persuasive essay, a writer should consider two aspects: ‘Deductive’ and ‘Inductive’ argument. Deductive argument is a statement, which has the conclusion of it automatically following from the inference and the premises (I Logic, par 2). For that reason, one can simply say that for the conclusion to be termed as true, then the premises must also be true. For example, all apples are fruits; a granny smith is an Apple, for this reason, a granny is a fruit. All deductive argument sentences are divided into sections. The first two parts are known as the premises since; the last part of the sentence is referred to as a conclusion of the statement. A second example of a deductive argument is; all cats purr, Himalayan is a cat; for this reason, Himalayan cats purr.
The second aspect, which is the inductive reasoning, rests on the fact that it takes a particular information or statement and makes a broader generalization (More on logic, par 3). The generalizations of inductive statements are probable or insinuate chances of likelihood or possibility of something, thus allowing a tendency of the conclusion, not to be true. When writing an induction statement, one starts with some data, then from it; a conclusion is determined (More on logic, par 3). In most cases, an induction statement offers some logical explanation depending on an individual’s viewpoint. Examples of induction statements include:
1. Jacob is a lawyer. All lawyers have great analytical skills. Jacob is assumed to have great analytical skills.
Looking at the statement above, one would probably conclude that the conclusion of follows its premises. For that simple reason, the inferential claim is that when the premise is true and acceptable by people then the conclusion is true and acceptable. However, when the premises and the conclusion are separate, their relation has a likelihood of being seen to be less than a hundred percent supporting (I Logic, par 2).
When discussing the deductive statements, one has to understand that different concepts are used to assess how well the premises support the conclusion given. For instance, using the examples given in the deductive discussion above, we can conclude that deductive statements use the validity idea.
All apples are fruits, a granny smith is an apple, and, therefore, Granny is a fruit. As a result, a valid deductive statement should be in a manner that the conclusion is directly derived from the premises. The three statements can stand on their own without the aid of the other. As a result, the statement is valid even if the name given to the Apple “Granny Smith” is a name of a person’s. However, all the stand-alone statements in the statement are 100% supporting each other. The statement is seen as valid additionally because its airtight in that one cannot argue past that, not unless to challenge the name of the Apple. Further, it is possible to look at a deductive statement from a soundness angel. For a statement to be sound, it has to meet two major conditions. First, the statement has to be valid something that the example excelled in, and then each of its premises has to be true and acceptable. In our statement ‘All apples are fruits, a Granny Smith is an apple, and, for this reason, Granny is a fruit.’ Out rightly, all apples are fruits except the apple techno brand. However, from our statement, the argument is based on the granny being an apple thus it is a fruit. Thus, one can say that the statement is sound because all statements are true, and if viewed from the Apple Techno Product Brand that challenges the first premises, the next statement is acceptable and true. As a result, the statement is still seen as a true statement.
In the second example ‘All cats purr, Himalayan is a cat; for this reason, Himalayan cats purr’ all the premises of this statement are true and acceptable. As a result, the statement appears valid. On the issue of soundness, the statements premises are all true and cannot be argued differently.
For the inductive statement, a truth table is drawn to show if it is valid and sound. 1. ‘Jacob is a lawyer. All lawyers have great analytical skills. Jacob is assumed to have great analytical skills.’
Then Q is the premises; all lawyers have great analytical skills.
While P to Q is the premises, Jacob is assumed to have great analytical skills
T stands for truth while F stands for False.
If the first (P) and the second (Q) premises are perceived as true, then out rightly the statement is seen as true. However, from our statement, The first premises is true given that Jacob has papers to show that he is a lawyer by profession. The second statement can be challenged on grounds that not all lawyers have good analytical skills, which means that the conclusion of the statement is invalid and unsound. Additionally, if Jacobs’s papers are not authentic, but the second premises can be argued to be true, the conclusion shall be seen as false because Jacob is not a lawyer in the first place. Consequently, if the P and Q are false, the conclusion, which is P to Q, has a likelihood of being true.
Even though both the deductive and the inductive statements are used in arguments, the two argument styles are inadequate, thus cannot be used on any scientific approach. Even though deductive statements give undoubtable evidence, they do not leave a place for observation and experiments.
I Logic. Deduction and Induction. 2015. Web. 12 Feb. 2015. <http://www.butte.edu/~wmwu/iLogic/1.3/iLogic_1_3.html>
More on logic. Deductive and Inductive Logic. 2015. Web. 12 Feb. 2015. <http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/Logic.html>
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