Good Essay On Use Of Electricity And Magnetism In Our Future Transportation
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In general, since the 19th century, electricity fits into the life of modern civilization. Electricity is used not only for lighting, but also for the transmission of information (telegraph , telephone, radio, television), as well as for driving mechanisms in motion (motor), which is widely used in transport (tram, metro, trolley, train). Previous century can rightly be called the century of electricity. Electrons are easy to manipulate, so it is electricity in the first place was the breeding ground for the creation of new technologies. Age of electricity has led to the emergence of radio, television, computers, lasers, magnetic resonance imaging, and so on. In the new century, scientists have yet to find their new sanctuary, but it certainly appears that it is about superconductivity at room temperature. This discovery marks the beginning of a completely new era, an era of magnetism (Barkenbus, 2009).
The future of the transport system is based on a use of electricity and magnetism in our future transportation. Electric buses, trains or electric cars are at least three times more efficient internal combustion engines. Electric vehicles may also be into an intelligent electrical network. In the field of public transport, clean and energy-efficient alternatives are low-floor tram. Furthermore, they are more economical this means that the cost of maintenance and replacement of parts, along with the energy saving of up to 30% more advantageous compared to conventional vehicles (Brouwer, Kuramochi, van den Broek, Faaij, 2013).
The modern world is living through the cars, trucks, buses and airplanes, to move people and goods between different countries around the world to earn or just for fun. Twenty-two percent of the energy consumed worldwide transport. Cars, trucks and buses use 75% of the energy transport.
Almost all motorized transport run on fuels derived from petroleum, mainly gasoline or diesel. Engines of different modes of transport are the largest consumers of oil products. In addition, they emit most polluting emissions. All of us have long known that the engines - the primary source of pollution emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Use of transport is the source of 27% of CO 2 emissions in the world (Barkenbus, 2009).
Many countries have adopted environmental laws, warning vehicle emissions of pollutants such as sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). These laws have helped reduce smog and other effects of air pollution. Only now, when global warming is at the global level, we begin to take concrete steps to reduce CO 2 emissions. We are driving on more energy-efficient modes of transport that consume less fuel oil and giving lower emissions into the atmosphere. Some forms of transport, such as buses on hydrogen fuel cells are still at an experimental stage (Brouwer, Kuramochi, van den Broek, Faaij, 2013).
Electric transport is from the beginning of the era of the automobile. This transport is by electric motors that run on batteries, rechargeable by connecting to the mains. Electric car itself produces part of the electricity for itself in a process called "regenerative braking." In this kind of motor braking is rotated in the opposite direction and becomes a generator, the vehicle slows down. The generator helps recharge the batteries (conventional brakes are ). Despite such a long evolutionary history, the use of electric vehicles is limited to the use of batteries. The advent of next-generation electric vehicles was announced in 2009-2010.
The highlights in the mass transport current technological advances have focused primarily on improvements in security systems, increased power and speed with lower power consumption, and the introduction of new alternative power sources to oil (Brouwer, Kuramochi, van den Broek, Faaij, 2013). Technological developments in the transport of the future will be based on autonomous driving, the rise of individual transport, and the development of intermodal public transport. Energy savings and use that is more efficient are the two primary factors for sustainable energy in the future. They can be achieved by controlling the power consumption and the implementation of energy-saving products and technologies in buildings, industry, and transport.
Electromagnetic fields are the union of two physical phenomena, which are the electricity and magnetism. Understanding electrical current passing a flow of electrons by a driver, and magnetism, physical phenomenon generating repulsive forces and attraction between two bodies in which each has poles with different electrical charges. Ampere's Law: "The movement of a magnetic field along a line close equals the product of the net intensity μ0 through the area bounded by the path.” Μ0 understood as permeability (ability of a material to attract or ask whether magnetic fields). Faraday's law: The variation of the intensity of a magnetic field generated a coil, producing a potential difference or electromotive force in the circuit affecting said magnetic field, which can provide current supply (Barkenbus, 2009). Solenoid: is any object capable of generating a magnetic field region uniform, the best example of a solenoid is the coil of wire, wrapped around a pipe or circular surface length assumed in this case of infinite length. The more turns can be to the thread may be more uniform magnetic field, the equation describes it this way: the product of the electric current by the number of turns are between the Solenoid overall length (area), which gives results in the field strength magnetic (Ampere). In addition, the number of turns by the intensity of electric current is directly proportional to the modulus of the field and magnetic solenoid such length is inversely proportional to module the magnetic field.
Superconductivity is the intrinsic ability to have certain materials to conduct electricity without resistance or energy loss under certain conditions. All materials currently used for the transport of energy (copper alloys, aluminum, steel, semiconductors, etc) have a greater or lesser resistance to the passage of an electric current, resulting in a loss in the transport of energy. The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as the temperature is, without actually canceled altogether, but some materials allow flow without a resistance to its passage (always under certain conditions), these are the called superconductors (Brouwer, Kuramochi, van den Broek, Faaij, 2013).
In 1986, two German scientists, Karl Alexander Müller, and Johannes Georg Bednorz, discovered that superconductivity could occur at higher temperatures in ceramics, a discovery that earned them the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987. Scientists believe that superconductivity would be the best choice for energy transmission, significantly improving the energy efficiency of energy transport. Transport energy from a power plant to substations or processing without gradually losing on the road is improved day by day tries to incorporate in many projects with varying degrees of success, if you also could use superconducting materials with characteristics improve system stability besides the reduction of losses(Barkenbus, 2009).
According to scientists, superconductivity has no problems with environmental phenomena, on the contrary, if you think about the connections at the top of the towers, running through cities and countries, people are concerned about the concentration of electromagnetic radiation in these, but the superconducting power lines do not produce electromagnetic radiation, as they are with layers of protection. Thus, the superconducting materials can block electromagnetic radiation and ejects the electromagnetic field. Moreover, superconductors also help to reduce the size of alternators and increase the electricity they produce to reduce losses, which serve to develop new, more efficient generators. In about five years the applications of superconductivity, which is why several countries are increasingly turning to her, will double the first application in medicine superconductivity MRI was followed by the sensors to sense fields Magnetic that originate in the brain (DeLuchi, 1991).
Imagine a magnetic car, hovering over the road and overcome in a few hundred kilometers per hour, and almost without consuming fuel. Imagine a magnetic levitation train, and even people traveling by air, hovering ka magnetic "suspension". We often forget that most of the gasoline in the car goes to overcoming friction. In principle, from San Francisco to New York could reach almost without expending energy. In reality, you have to pay for gasoline than one hundred dollars because the car has to overcome the friction of the wheels relative to the road surface and air resistance. If all the way it was possible to cover an even layer of ice and slide on it, the journey would cost you much cheaper. Similarly, space probes can fly for Pluto, spending on the road only a few tens of liters of fuel, because they have to travel through the vacuum of space. Magnetic car will hang above the ground maglev; should blow - and he will begin to move (DeLuchi, 1991).
Without any additional energy, superconductors at room temperature give humanity dominant SuperMagnets are capable of holding in the air cars and even trains. A simple demonstration of this effect can be in any laboratory. The reason that the magnet hangs in the air is easy. Magnetic lines of force cannot enter into the superconductor. This phenomenon is called the Meissner effect. (When the superconductor is applied magnetic field on the surface of the ring current arises, compensating it, so that the magnetic field is from the volume of the superconductor.) You put on a ceramic superconductor magnet, and powers lines are so as to penetrate into the superconductor are not state. There is a "cushion" of compressed along the lines of the magnetic field, which repels the magnet from ceramics and makes it float in the air.
The discovery of superconductivity at room temperature, among other things, could serve as the beginning of the era of SuperMagnets. We have already seen that the apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging is extremely useful, but they need to work in high magnetic fields. "Indoor" superconductors will enable scientists to create magnetic fields cheaply and easily incredible power. It is clear that it will be miniaturized devices for MRI. Today we can create MPT-sets size of a small suitcase with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. If the disposal of scientists will superconductors at room temperature, MPT-unit may be able to reduce the size of the buttons. First of all, cheap and convenient superconductors will find their use in transport, where the real revolution is inevitable; appear automobiles and trains, which will float on the surface, and thus move without friction (Brouwer, Kuramochi, van den Broek, Faaij, 2013).
Imagine a ride in the car, made the use of superconductors at room temperature. Then the road will not cover the asphalt and a superconductor. The machine is a permanent magnet or a superconductor own magnetic field generating. The machine will soar above the road. To begin the motion, it would be sufficient even force of compressed air. Just typing speed, it (if the road is horizontal) will slide forward almost indefinitely. An electric motor or a jet of compressed air will only work on overcoming air resistance, and that is all!
Leaders in this field are Germany, Japan, and China. Maglev train had already put several world records (DeLuchi, 1991). The first commercial maglev train has become quite slow shuttle train, linking the international airport and the railway station in Birmingham; route began to operate in 1984 The highest speed maglev train, component 581 km / h, registered in Japan by train MLX01 in 2003 (jets fly faster, partly because at high altitudes less air resistance. As the train on maglev floats in the air, the energy he spends mainly to overcome the friction of the air. If a train traveling in a vacuum, it could reach speeds of up to 6500 km / h.) However, such trains are very expensive and are unlikely to be widespread in world. Superconductors at room temperature could completely change the situation. In particular, they could revive the rail system in the United States and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the engines of jet aircraft. The estimated aircraft engines are responsible for about 2% of the greenhouse gasses, and the maglev train could severely reduce this fraction.
Barkenbus, J. (2009). Our electric automotive future: CO2 savings through a disruptive technology. Policy and Society, 27, 399–410. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.polsoc.2009.01.005
Brouwer, A. S., Kuramochi, T., van den Broek, M., & Faaij, A. (2013). Fulfilling the electricity demand of electric vehicles in the long-term future: An evaluation of centralized and decentralized power supply systems. Applied Energy, 107, 33–51. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.02.005
DeLuchi, M. a. (1991). Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Anl, 1, 157. http://doi.org/10.2172/5457338
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