Good Example Of Essay On Communism Vs Democracy
Democracy and Communism are ideologies that had a significant impact on the world. In this paper we will discuss them in details and perform a comparative analysis of both types of government.
Communism is a term used in Marxism which refers to hypothetical social and economic system based on social equality, public ownership of the means of production.
The basic principle of communism is the principle of "from everyone - according to his ability, to everyone - according to his needs", which expresses the inherent communist society full social equality demands that society to its members, as well as the nature of the distribution of material and spiritual wealth.
The basic principle of communism requires each member of society to work to the best of their abilities, and actively participate in the management of public affairs, to constantly improve their cultural, theoretical level and voluntarily abide by the rules of communist behavior. These requirements are made possible because labor under communism ceases to be an obligation, but a means to life, becoming a vital necessity.
Communist society provides social equality of all its members, and therefore creates equal opportunities not only for the formation, but also for the most appropriate, in the interests of society and the individual, application and use of their abilities. Communism, Engels wrote, "allows all members of society as much as possible to comprehensively develop maintain and demonstrate their abilities" (Vol. 20, p. 206). At the same time undergo profound changes and the ability to do that will be extremely diverse and sophisticated. First of all, the ability of a human as a worker will be developed. Automated and mechanized labor becomes creative, fun, not physically burdensome. Disappear specialization employee will become possible to freely change activities. Become more sophisticated abilities of the individual as a citizen and public figure. Communist social self-government, which will replace the state, will provide the basis for the formation of a variety of organizational abilities of the individual. People will not be burdened by considerations of income, personal material gain, cargo remnants of the past, leading to an unprecedented flowering of his spiritual abilities and capabilities. Freed from the everyday, often tedious, requiring much time and effort, material concerns, he gets free time for active participation in public life, to practice in the field of science and technology, literature and art, for the intellectual, moral and physical perfection, it will grow significantly dignity as a human being - creator of previously unknown material and spiritual values, the builder of the new social relations. Obliging every member of society to work according to his ability, O. n. A. (And this is its qualitative difference from the basic principle of socialism) assumes full satisfaction of the reasonable material and spiritual needs of people, which is achieved through a high level of social production.
The communist principle of distribution has nothing to do with asceticism, leveling needs and vital interests of the people as they try to present opponents of scientific communism. He claims no equality needs, and equality of opportunity and conditions to meet them. People differ by age and gender, occupation and place of residence, in their physiological and psychological characteristics, abilities, aptitudes and interests. These differences persist under communism, and therefore the needs of the people cannot be the same.
Human needs in the course of communist construction improved, which develops and means to meet them. Communist society, Engels wrote, "will cause new needs and at the same time to create the means to meet them" (v. 4, p. 334). Needs a member of a communist society will become far more advanced and versatile, but all its diversity and breadth they will be free of frills, whims and caprices, expressing a healthy, reasonable requirements of comprehensive development, harmonious person. Reasonable needs are those that correspond to the potential of society and the satisfaction of which contributes to the improvement of physical and spiritual qualities of the person. In "State and Revolution" Lenin ridiculed idea of communism as a society in which everyone, without spending labor effort, get whatever he wants. He pointed out that communism except high productivity suggests a new consumer, far from the man in the street who "only can vainly spoil stocks of public wealth and demand the impossible" (Vol. 33, p. 97). Parenting reasonable and healthy needs is a prerequisite for the basic principle of communism. It is important to create such items involve people in such forms of activity that would develop in them the needs and interests that meet high communist ideals. It is important to teach each person the ability to not only efficient use of social values, but also to create these values, that is, to participate to the best of their ability and capacity to socially useful work.
I should try to briefly describe the fundamental principles of democracy, the primary of which, as indicated by the etymology of the word democracy (Gr. Demos - people, kratia - power) is the principle of the sovereignty of the people. The will of God as a source of political order replaced the voice of the people (vox populi, vox Dei). Democracy found its eloquent defender in the face of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his concept of a democratic republic, "It is a public entity created by combining all previously received the name of civitas, but now bears the name of the republic, or political body that its members are called state when it is passive, Sovereign when it is active members themselves as a whole receive the name of the people, as well as individuals are called citizens, as members of the supreme power, and subjects as those who obey the laws of the state "(Rousseau" Social Contract ") . Democracy can be taken only under the harsh rule of law.
The basic principles of democracy:
1) political freedom - the freedom to choose the social system and form of government, the people's right to determine and change the constitutional order (Art. 5 of the Constitution), the protection of human rights. Freedom has a primary purpose - based on it may be equality and inequality, but it implies equality;
2) the equality of citizens - it is the equality of all before the law, equal responsibility for the offense, the right to equal protection before the court. Equal guaranteed: there can be no privileges or restrictions based on race, color, political, religious or other beliefs, sex, ethnic or social origin, property status, place of residence, language and other characteristics. The most important aspect of equality - equality of rights and freedoms of men and women who have the same opportunities to exercise them;
3) the election of the state and in constant contact with them the population - involves the formation of government and local self-government by the people's will, and ensures their turnover, ownership and mutual control, each equal opportunity to exercise their voting rights. In a democracy, the same people do not have a long time continuously occupy positions of authority: it causes distrust of citizens, leads to a loss of legitimacy of these bodies;
4) separation of powers – it is interdependence and mutual restriction of the different branches of government: legislative, executive, judicial, that is an obstacle for the conversion of power into a means of suppressing freedom and equality;
5) decision-making by the will of the majority, in strict observation of minority rights - is a combination of the will of the majority of the guarantees of individual rights, being in the minority - ethnic, religious, political; non-discrimination, the suppression of the rights of individuals who are not in the majority in decision-making;
6) pluralism - means the variety of social phenomena, expands the range of policy choices, involves not only the diversity of opinions, but also political pluralism - the multiplicity of parties, public associations, etc. with various programs and charters operating under the constitution. Democracy is possible in the case where it is based on the principle of pluralism is, however, not everyone is necessarily democratic pluralism. Only in conjunction with other principles of pluralism becomes universal significance for modern democracy.
Democracy is a system in which the country is governed by the people - through their representatives (MPs, senators) or directly. Communism is a social and economic structure, which created an egalitarian, classless society, without distinction and citizenship.
Communism is an ideology in which the most important is the idea of common ownership. This is due to the principle of justice and equality. In communism, a group of people exercise power over the country. This group addresses issues of society and determines the course of action. Authority can interfere in people's lives. Democracy as well in favor of equality of men in society and in the same controlled group of people. However, democracy is primarily a government of the people through their elected representatives. These elected representatives are treated as employed workers who are required to comply with the wishes of society.
The most significant difference between communism and democracy is in the economy. In communism the government fully controls all aspects - production, production distribution, resources, etc. It divides in society all the benefits equally. In a democracy, the situation is different.
In communism, this approach holds equality in society so that no one rose to a higher position or dropped to a lower position. In a democracy permitted business, there is no limit to do business. This in turn entails the separation of the income of society - rich and poor.
Democracy has no specific principles governing this type of statehood. The only principle is the principle of freedom and equal rights for all citizens. Freedoms and rights of citizens defined in the constitution of the state.
Communism is prohibited to own private property, and democracy is one of the basic elements of the economic life of society.
Thus, it can be summarized that:
Communism is a system of social and economic institutions, advocated the establishment of an egalitarian, classless society. Democracy is based on a system of control by the people through their representatives elected by voting.
Communism in power is a group of people who manage authoritarian country. In a democracy, power is the "servant" of society, respecting the wishes of the people.
In communism, only public property is allowed, while democracy may be private property.
Hal Draper (1974). "Marx on Democratic Forms of Government". Socialist Register.
Emerson, Peter (2007) "Designing an All-Inclusive Democracy." Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-33163-6
Adami, Stefano. "Communism", in Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies, ed. Gaetana Marrone – P. Puppa, Routledge, New York, London, 2006
Emerson, Peter (2012) "Defining Democracy." Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-20903-1
Beer, Max. The General History of Socialism and Social Struggles Volumes 1 & 2. New York, Russel and Russel, Inc. 1957
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