Good Example Of Essay On Hawthorne Studies
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The Hawthorne Studies suggested that productivity, satisfaction, and motivation are interrelated, and motivation is the real cause of the performance of workers or people in any environment, rather than the social or economic factors for work. These studies concluded that if workers were given due attention and their needs be heard, their performance would be enhanced.
Likert - Attitude Survey
A major breakthrough in psychology was to measure one’s attitude and behavior through the development and use of surveys. This studied the effects of participation in decision making in an employee’s performance.
Lewin- Practice and Theory
This theory says that in order to predict a person’s behavior, his surroundings must be considered independent factors where other individuals, the environment, and time need to be taken into consideration.
Maslow-Hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people are always motivated to achieve their needs, and these are necessary to attain satisfaction. There are five motivational needs are psychological, safety, social, esteem and lastly self-actualization.
McGregor-Theory X and Y
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation. Theory X states that individuals under this are lazy, unwilling to work by nature and in order to get them to use, an environment needs to be created. Theory Y states that under this, individuals are ambitious, active and enjoy their work much.
Herzberg-Motivation and Hygiene
This theory by Herzberg states that there are certain factors present in the workplace that can cause satisfaction to the workers and another set of factors that can cause dissatisfaction.
Lyman and Porter –Autonomy and Esteem
This theory states that the performance of an individual in a certain task depends on the award they await for doing that very task. Satisfaction on the job depends on the fairness of the award given at the end of the task.
McClelland’s theory highlights the fact that need and achievement are linked to the realization of attaining one’s goal and also assessing the risk of failure. The do-er will always be attracted to the goal of any given work which is why they will do it in the first place.
This theory states that it is important to have a balance between the input of work by a worker and the outputs given by an employee. The theory strives to keep a good balance between the employee and employer for motivation and good result.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
According to Vroom, any worker’s performance is based on his personal skills, abilities, knowledge, personality and life experience. Good rewards, strength to work hard and appreciation are needed along the way to keep people motivated.
This theory developed as a reaction to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Alderfer distinguished Maslow’s five stages into; Existence needs, the physiological and safety needs, Relatedness, the social and esteem and Growth needs which include internal needs and self-actualization.
Skinner –Behavior Modification
Skinner proposed that behavior can be governed by various stimuli such as reinforcement and punishment. Hence, one can reward desired behavior and punish for undesirable behavior.
Hackman and Oldham- JCI
This theory provides a model for designing work and how the characteristics of the job had a direct impact on the employee’s motivation, performance and attitude and how development occurred in this relation.
Locke- Goal Setting
Goal setting is the most scientific of all theories. This theory states that activeness exists in every action to appropriate the environment to attain any goal. Focusing on attaining one goal might evade the reasons for gaining another. Feedback on any work also pursues towards achieving one's goals.
Differences and Similarities between Adams and Vroom’s Theories
Adam’s theory relies on the belief that it is the person who needs achieve a balance between the amount of work he is given to do, his ability to do it and the reward that he is ultimately given by his employer. If the working environment is a good one, then the worker will give his best, and the result will be positive.
Vroom states that it is the person’s innate abilities, personality, skills and experience that make him work well and achieve his goals. Hence if he is motivated to work then he will do so otherwise he will not.
The similarities in the theories lie in the fact that motivation is needed in either case, either externally or internally to work and achieve any aim.
The theory truer to motivation is Adam’s which is a more practical and rational theories, since people will always give a better performance if they are working in a pleasant environment and getting due reward at the end of their hard work. Also, cooperative bosses always produce a better work environment which positively affects the workers.
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