Good Example Of Global Warming Argumentative Essay
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There is real evidence that human activity contributes to the accumulation of "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere, which leads to a gradual increase in air temperature on a global scale. In particular, carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) produced by burning fossil fuels, electricity or cutting and burning of forests. The process of accumulation of greenhouse gases, including methane, nitrous oxide and other, went so far that the planet faces a real risk of massive and potentially devastating effects. The effect of greenhouse gases on global warming is, in my opinion, the most important environmental issue facing the world today (Ramanathan, V., 2006).
In 1988, as a result of recent studies have begun to emerge the possible extent of the problem, two UN bodies - UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - decided to create a joint Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to collect relevant information relating to climate change and to develop proposals. This group of dispersed around the world in 2500 by leading scientists and experts analyzes the current scientific information on the subject. Its findings stimulate the process of developing a legally binding and co-ordinated approach to this problem. In recognition of its achievements in 2007, the Group, together with the former president of the United States Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
In response to these warnings by scientists in 1992 by representatives of countries signed in New York, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Today, this international treaty by which industrialized mills agreed to reduce emitted into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and to bring it to the level of 2000 to 1990, joined 191 countries. These countries, which account for 60 percent of annual emissions of carbon dioxide, also agreed to transfer to developing countries to deal with the challenges in relation to climate change need technology and information.
Evidence presented by scientists of the IPCC in 1995, clearly indicates that the problem posed in 1992, even in time achieved, will not prevent global warming and related issues. In 1997, the countries that have ratified the Convention, met in Kyoto (Japan), and agreed on a legally binding Protocol under which developed countries must reduce total emissions of six greenhouse gases by 5.2 percent over the period 2008-2012, taking as a point the reference level in 1990. Today, 175 States have acceded to the Protocol, which also sets out a number of innovative "mechanisms" aimed at cutting costs to reduce emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. Of the six types of gases listed in it, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are found in the atmosphere, but their levels as a result of human activity rose sharply. Synthetic gas sulfur hexafluoride has a devastating impact on the state of the atmosphere (1 kg to 22 200 kg of carbon dioxide). Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are synthetic chemical classes, and 1 kg each equivalent in terms of the "greenhouse effect" many tons of carbon dioxide.
When the UN has just begun to mobilize world public opinion to address the threat of climate change, many thought this theoretical research and are classified as "unproven." Differences scientific point of view, though there were minimal, however, has been announced, and means for the preparation of predictive models have not been adequate. The picture has changed dramatically in 2006 and in early 2007, after the publication of the most prestigious in the history of the IPCC report.
According to William Randel (2009), breakthroughs in the field of climate modeling, data collection and analysis, a review of relevant scientific publications have allowed the IPCC stated with 90 percent certainty those global warming progresses, and its rate of increase, thus confirming its anthropogenic origin. In addition, the consequences of its already visible and the situation will only get worse if not taken decisive action to remedy the situation. The report has received unanimous approval from both scholars and experts on climate change from 40 countries, as well as from the governments of 113 countries, shows that if they sustain the momentum of greenhouse gases, by the end of this century, the world needs to happen increase in the average temperature of 3 degrees Celsius. This will entail a dramatic change in temperature, heat waves, changes in wind patterns, severe droughts in some regions and abnormal rate of precipitation in others, melting glaciers and Arctic ice and rising sea levels. And although it is expected that the number of tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will decrease their intensity will increase with increasing wind speed and rate of precipitation as a result of the warming of the individual layers of the ocean.
As adopted by 168 countries at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan, the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 contain recommendations that can effectively contribute to reducing the risk of natural disasters caused by climate events. However, in the end, the most effective way that can reverse the process of global warming, is to restore the stability of the atmospheric processes.
The details of the determinants of the economic effects of global warming are complicated, but some of the most important determinants are easy to understand. Means to overcome these obstacles, fortunately, are defined, and the goal can be achieved if all the countries and peoples of the world will unite their efforts for this. In addition to the existing activities at the national level by the Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, they can participate, individuals, municipalities, non-governmental organizations and other bodies. For example, in one of its programs in 2007, UNEP organized a campaign of planting a billion trees worldwide to mitigate the adverse effects associated with the accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide. March 1, 2007 the UN together with the City of San Francisco, the Bay Area Council and a number of local businesses launched an initiative "Principles of environmental governance", in order to develop the business community and urban pattern of behavior in the fight against global warming. The United Nations also welcomed the "green initiative" New York City as part of "Earth Day" in 2007, the purpose of which was an attempt to reduce the burden on natural resources such as water, air and earth (Richard J. Pierce Jr., 2007).
Also in 2007, the United Nations Foundation and the Research Society "Sigma XI” published a report entitled "Fighting climate change: moving away from intractable problems, resolved to take up." The report concludes that the world community could significantly slow down, and then reduce global greenhouse gas emissions for several decades to come at the expense of maintaining an efficient cost policies, as well as existing and future technologies. The report's policy recommendations include efficiency standards of vehicles, fuel taxes, as well as support for buying fuel-efficient and use alternative fuels vehicles. The report calls for those responsible for policy development, to improve the design and efficiency of commercial and residential buildings through the introduction of new building codes, standards for equipment and appliances, as well as search for incentives and financing for investments in energy efficiency. In addition, he urged the international community both through the UN and relevant multilateral organizations to assist needy countries in the financing and the use of energy-efficient and new energy technologies. In April 2007, the UN Security Council held an open debate on the issues of energy security and climate change, thereby emphasizing the urgent need for concerted international action to resolve the problem of climate change. In his speech, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called for "long-term efforts at the global level, taking into account the latest scientific discoveries and in line with the economic and social development."
May 1, 2007 The Secretary-General has called climate change a major issue of our time, raised the issue of climate change at the forefront in their own operations, and also named three prominent international figures of his special envoys on climate change. Special Envoys are: Her Excellency Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Prime Minister of Norway and former Chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, His Excellency Mr Ricardo Lagos Escobar, former President of Chile and founder of the Global Foundation for Democracy and Development, dealing with sustainable development, and His Excellency Mr. Han Seung-soo, former President of the fifty-sixth session of the UN General Assembly and the head of the Korea Water Forum.
Synthesis Report on Climate Change
November 17, 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its synthesis report, which is based on estimates of its three working groups, and which reflects a comprehensive look at climate change. The following are excerpts from the report:
"Warming of the climate system is the indisputable fact that is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Temperature rise is observed around the globe, and it is more pronounced in the high northern latitudes."
"Global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from human activities exceeded all pre-industrial values, an increase of 70% between 1970 and 2004. There is high agreement and much evidence that under the current policy climate change mitigation and sustainable development practices, global GHG emissions will continue to grow over the next few decades."
"Continuation of existing GHG emissions or higher rates would cause further warming and would lead to the twenty-first century to the many changes in the global climate system Anthropogenic warming could lead to some impacts that are abrupt or irreversible."
"There is new and stronger evidence of observed impacts of climate change on unique and vulnerable systems (such as polar and high mountain communities and ecosystems), with increasing levels of adverse effects with further increase of temperature."
"There is a high degree of reliability of the projections of worsening drought, heat waves and floods, as well as their adverse effects."
"There is increasing evidence of increased vulnerability of specific groups of people such as the poor and elderly not only in developing countries but also in developed countries. In addition, a growing body of evidence that are in the low-latitude and less-developed areas are exposed, as a rule, greater risk, such as arid regions. Sea level rise during warming is inevitable."
"At the disposal of governments have a wide variety of national policies and mechanisms to encourage mitigation measures There is high agreement and much evidence to the effect that notable achievements of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol are the establishment of a global response to climate change, stimulation of a variety of national programs, the creation of an international carbon market and the establishment of new institutional mechanisms that may provide the basis for mitigation efforts in the future. "
Special Envoys discussed the problem with most of the world's leading political figures, especially national leaders. They also made proposals for high-level event on climate change organized by the Secretary-General on 24 September 2007, during which he discussed the issue with the heads of state and other leading politicians from 150 countries, as well as to the Conference of Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, held 3 -14 December 2007 in Bali, Indonesia (Good, P, 2010).
In September 2007, the Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and UNEP created a website for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Under the CDM, promoting sustainable development projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries can receive benefits credited for certified emission reductions (CERs), which can be exchanged, sold and used by industrialized countries to meet part of its goals to reduce emissions.
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
The ozone layer is a thin gas layer in the stratosphere at a distance of more than 10 kilometers above the ground, which protects the earth's surface from the damaging effect of the sun's ultraviolet rays. In the mid-1970s, a number of discoveries confirmed that some chemical substances of human origin, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning and industrial cleaning, contributed to the destruction of atmospheric ozone and ozone depletion. This problem has gained an international scale, since it is known that exposure to UV radiation causes skin cancer, eye cataracts and suppresses the immune system and causes unpredictable damage to plants, algae, food chains and the global ecosystem.
United Nations Environment Programme helped to negotiate, and now governs the implementation of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985) and the Montreal Protocol (1987) and amendments thereto. In accordance with these agreements, the developed countries have banned the production and sale of chlorofluorocarbon compounds. In addition, developing countries should stop their production by 2010. The terms of phasing out ozone-depleting substances are determined.
In 2006, the year of the UNEP Ozone Secretariat Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion confirmed the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. According to estimates, the total amount of ozone in the lower atmosphere and the stratosphere is now slowly declining, and there were early signs of the expected "ozone recovery" of the stratosphere. If no measures were taken under the Protocol, the depletion of the ozone layer would be much greater and would have continued for many decades. Scientists predict that in the near future protective ozone shield starts to recover and fully restored in 2050 that the Protocol will be strictly adhered to in the future.
Prevention of global warming requires concerted efforts by all countries. One of the most obvious and effective solution to the problem of global warming is the rational use of energy and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. One of the major efforts by the international community, the transition from traditional methods of energy generation, associated with the burning of carbon raw materials to non-traditional (alternative) energy: use of solar, wind, tidal, geothermal power plants and others. Special attention is paid to the development and improvement of the regulatory documents aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. At present, many countries adopted United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, the laws relating to carbon emissions, taken at the level of national governments.
Ramanathan, V. (2006). Global Warming. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 36-38
Richard J. Pierce Jr. (2007). Energy Independence and Global Warming. Natural Resources & Environment, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 68-71
Good, P., et al. (2010), An updated review of developments in climate science research since IPCC AR4. A report by the AVOID consortium, London, UK: Committee on Climate Change, p. 14. Report website.
Randel, William J.; Shine, Keith P.; Austin, John et al. (2009). "An update of observed stratospheric temperature trends". Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (D2): D02107.
"Synthesis report". Sec 6.3 Responses to climate change: Robust findings. In IPCC AR4 SYR 2007
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