Health And Diseases In Nursing Case Studies Example

Type of paper: Case Study

Topic: Health, Disease, Medicine, Chlamydia, Family, Heart, Parents, Viruses

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/12/20

Part 1: Risk and Cohort Study Design

In 2014, news reports of increasing incidences of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) among schoolchildren alarmed parents as they recognized how highly contagious the disease is in humans, more so in children especially when there is a kid who has it in school. Thus, the Saginaw public health department encouraged schools to inform parents and school officials about the situation. This also meant becoming aware of the symptoms of the disease, which include high fever, colds, mouth rashes that appear “in the mouth, on the inner cheeks, gums and sides of the tongue and as bumps or blisters on the hand and foot” (Zizaza, 2014). Rashes last between seven to 10 days. According to medical reports, there are no specific vaccines available to prevent the spread of the no disease or treatment methods on hand other than treating the fever and the tender sores. HFMD is typically caused by an enterovirus (Healthwise Staff, 2012).
Apart from the Saginaw public health department, there were three more cases reported in Michigan, which claimed that the enterovirus D68 strain could be the culprit behind the sicknesses, that has also affected about 175 other patients in 27 states. While the virus appeared to have been controlled already back in the early 1960s, it has not been until 2014 when Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported new cases occurring. The virus is spread through contact with people suffering from the disease or touching infected surfaces and touching the eyes or mouth of an uninfected person (Lawler, 2014).
The risk of contracting the disease is very high as reported by several hospitals in Michigan where most of the patients are school aged children. If infected children, especially those who have fever, stay home until they get well, spread of the disease will be contained. While it is more common in children aged 10 years and below, adult caretakers may also contract the disease with constant exposure to the patients and improper handling of wastes.

Part 2: Disease Causation

Considering Steve’s medical health background, including those of his parents, there is a high possibility that Steve will suffer from myocardial infarction or a heart attack just like his father. There is evidence that it is hereditary, which makes him a candidate for suffering such disease. Additionally, the nature of his job does not allow him time for exercise or any other physical activity, which increases his risks of developing a heart problem. His high blood pressure at 142/90 tells a lot as well because his mother was diagnosed with hypertension already, thus, apart from possibly acquiring hypertension through genetics, his lifestyle choices could also be a contributory factor to him developing the disease himself. Steve also has a long history of smoking (25 years), which could lead to hyperlipidemia, which his mother is also diagnosed with. Hyperlipidemia is also a precursor for atherosclerosis.
Studies reveal that there is a strong relationship between diabetes (mother’s disease) and heart attack (father’s cause of death), both of which could be factors on Steve developing the same diseases. Diabetes is hereditary although it can also be acquired due to obesity and leading a sedentary lifestyle (Erdmann, Linsel-Nitschke, & Schunkert, 2010). In Steve’s case, his body mass index is 31, which considers him as an obese individual. Having high glucose levels in the bloodstream also causes arteries to harden while the fatty deposits that stay in these vessels can lead to blocked arteries that obstructs blood flow to the heart, which leads to heart attack (“Heart Talk: The Link Between Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease”). In addition, not being able to control blood glucose increases the chance of developing high blood pressure and irregularities in blood lipids, which again could lead to heart attack (Ganda).

Part 3: Epidemiologic Sub-fields

Incidences of Chlamydia in Michigan are an all-time high with more than 7,500 reported cases from January to March alone (“Weekly Disease Report for the Week Ending March 7th”). Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. This is an asymptomatic condition and is most often called the “silent disease” because patients typically lack abnormal physical findings. While it is most common in teenagers, especially those who are sexually active, it affects both sexes and all age groups (Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet, 2014). It is highly treatable; however, when left untreated, this could lead to various other diseases such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can damage the cervix, uterus, and ovaries. It can also cause infertility in women especially if the fallopian tubes become scarred. Women who contract the disease while pregnant could also pass on the infection to their babies during birth. For men, Chlamydia could lead to inflamed epididymis, the tube that holds the testicles in place. Additionally, sexual activity could result to painful intercourse when the infection spreads to the prostate glands, leading to fever and painful lower back (Rivers & Nelson, 2012).
The disease can be tied up to “a combination of behavioral, biological, and cultural reasons” (Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet, 2014) because of the age group that is often targeted by the infection as some of them do not use condoms during intercourse, practice polygamy which greatly increases risks of transmission, or engage in oral or anal sex (“Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet, 2014).


Chlamydia – CDC fact sheet. (2014). Retrieved from
Erdmann, J., Linsel-Nitschke, P., & Schunkert, H. (2010). Genetic causes of myocardial infarction. Retrieved from
Ganda, O.P. (n.d.). Diabetes and heart disease – an intimate connection. Retrieved from
Healthwise Staff. (2012). Hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Retrieved from
Heart talk: The link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Lawler, E. (2014). 3 cases of enterovirus D68 strain confirmed in Michigan; infection now in 27 states. Retrieved from
Rivers, A., & Nelson, J. (2012). Chlamydia infection. Retrieved from
Weekly disease report for the week ending in March 7th, 2015 (MMWR week 9). (n.d.). Retrieved from
Zizaza, N. (2014). Increase of hand, foot and mouth disease cases in mid-Michigan. Retrieved from

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"Health And Diseases In Nursing Case Studies Example," Free Essay Examples -, 20-Dec-2020. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 03-Oct-2022].
Health And Diseases In Nursing Case Studies Example. Free Essay Examples - Published Dec 20, 2020. Accessed October 03, 2022.

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