Sugarcane Adhesive AND Glycosyle Adhesive Literature Review Example

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Bagasse, Fibre, Print, Business, Production, Products, Study, Material

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Published: 2023/02/22


The synthetic adhesives are cheap, have good mechanical and tensile strength, they can be easily moulded to any shape, and have high resistance against corrosion, but, the major drawback is their non-biodegradability. Every year tonnes and tonnes of non-biodegradable wastes are dumped in the environment leading to environmental pollution. As a result, bio-based and bio-degradable products have raised a great attention worldwide that is driven by consumer demand due to the growing awareness of environmental issues. Researchers are focussed in investigating the commercial feasibility to produce an entire bio-based adhesive system in order to maximize the environmental, social, and industrial benefits.
Present adhesives depend upon petroleum as their starting material. With the increased demand in energy supply to support the expanding population, and inevitable decline in fossil fuel sources in future the requirement to derive alternative adhesive system from renewable resource needs no prediction. Application of natural fibres composites are increasing due to their abundance, low-cost, eco-friendly properties, and they remain environment friendly, at the stage of production, processing and waste.
In 2007 sugarcane production was over 1.4 billion tonnes worldwide, and 54 dry tonnes of bagasse are produced worldwide annually. Bagasse is the fibrous residue after the sugarcane stalks is crushed to extract the juice. Presently 85% of the bagasse production is burnt. Researchers have identified an invaluable potential in the structural property of sugarcane carbohydrate, which can efficiently replace the synthetic adhesives as well as add benefit our environment due to their biodegradability.


Bio adhesive products derived from renewable resources completely degrade, when they are exposed to microorganisms, or in aerobic and anaerobic processes. Whereas, the synthetic solvent based adhesives are non biodegradable as well as toxic. For past few decades uncontrolled production of solid waste has led the government, and society to promote researches to search new alternatives for the synthetic adhesives to minimize the degradation of nature as well as increase society`s well being.
Adhesives are the most expensive and extremely important component for many applications. It is found that the toxic chemicals in adhesives can potentially cause problems, which impact on the ability of products to reuse, recycle a product, and even continue to affect, when the lives of the products come to an end.
Commercially produced typical resins of the adhesive systems are divided into two broad categories, thermosetting resins (e.g. urea-formaldehyde) and thermoplastic resins (e.g. polyvinyl acrylates). Urea-formaldehyde (UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) are the main adhesives used by wood panel industry. Presently 90% of the particleboards are produced in the world with the help of urea- formaldehyde (UF) resin, although the adhesive demonstrates low resistance to humidity. However, presently the phenol-formaldehyde based adhesives are widely in use for the production of panels for the environment with high relative humidity.
According to the World Health Organization, formaldehyde has been listed as a carcinogenic substance to humans. The toxicity of synthetic adhesive is mainly caused due to the solvents used in adhesive preparations. Some of the solvents used in the adhesives are acetone, n-hexane, and toluene, and they are classified as volatile organic compounds (VOC) and very hazardous. So, due to the growing awareness of environmental issues as well as the desire to save the planet, researchers are now investigating on the potential of different renewable resources to suitably remove the synthetic non-biodegradable, hazardous adhesives products.
Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is the residue of cellulose fibre originated from sugarcane processing after the sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract the juice. The researchers selected SCB because of its low cost and high quality green end material. It is found that the lignocellulosic composition of sugarcane is very effective to strengthen the bond between fibre and matrix, and under the appropriate modifications and manufacturing procedures, the SCB displays improved mechanical properties such as hardness, impact strength, tensile strength, tensile strength, flexural modulus, flexural strength. Researchers have found that mechanical properties of the SCB composites made from alkali treated fibres were superior to the untreated fibres. Above all qualities, Bbagasse satisfies the greening requirement due to the bio-degradability, reusable, and recyclable qualities.

Sugarcane--------------------------Sugar& Bagasse--------------- Bagasse fibre from bagasse

Formation of bagasse bio-composite material
In recent years, efforts have been intensified to study the potential of different lignocellulosic wastes. Studies have shown that the lignin extracted from sugarcane bagasse has similar structural features to the milled wood lignin. The low cost, low density and good mechanical properties of bagasse fibre can make it an ideal candidate for value-added applications to reinforce plastic composites, cement composites.
Sugar-urea derivatives have received considerable attention in recent years due to the unique structural properties and characteristics. By additional dehydration reaction carbohydrate chains are extended by adding one monomer to a growing chain. Glycosidic linkage between mono-saccharides is common type of inter-monomeric linkage in carbohydrate containing polymers. Difference in structure and function of these polymers arise mainly from the differences in glycosidic linkage, rather than the presence of different monosaccharide. Urea linked glycosides have the potential to serve as small molecule H-bond donors in asymmetric catalysis, and are now used in adhesive mixture to reduce the level of toxic phenol in furniture and building materials.


Biodegradable materials derived from plant sources can successfully form a new platform for sustainable and eco-friendly products, and compete with the synthetic and petroleum based products, which are presently dominating the market. The obtainable source of bagasse fibre is better known for the renewablility in terms of fast growth and better mechanical properties. Natural fibres are naturally occurring composites of cellulose fibrils embedded in lignin matrix.

Composition of Sugarcane bagasse (approximate value):

High cellulose content, reasonable tensile strength (between 170-290 MPa), and elasticity modulus between 15-19 GPa of the SCB, makes it ideal for composite reinforcement, with the potential to be used for industrial purposes. Adhesive properties of bagasse fibres due to the lignocellulosic composition, lignins possess higher proportions of phenolic hydroxyl group, so, they are more reactive towards modifications. Lignins are good candidates for producing lignin based phenol-formaldehyde as a potential raw material for the production of lignin-based adhesives. Researchers are applying different treatment techniques for sugarcane bagasse to improve their mechanical properties and enhance adhesive performance. Various chemical methods and modification techniques are available for fibre surface treatment such as alkalization, acetylation, and mercerization, methylation etc. to reduce the moisture absorption of the fibres. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) (5-30% of mass) to reduce matrix alkalinity is showed to have increased the durability of concrete.
In a study cellulose extracted from SCB was mercerized with 20 ml NaOH solution (50%) for one hour at room temperature for synthesis of methylcellulose (MC), then excess NaOH was removed by filtration and acetone (9ml) was added as solvent. Dimethyl sulphate (DMS) (3ml) was added in drops and the reaction was carried out for one hour at 50⁰C, after completion of the step, fresh reagents were added in filtered system, and same procedure was repeated for 5h of reaction. MC5h showed a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.89±0.04 and in MC synthesis with DMS, gel of polymer is formed. Commercial MC is prepared by heterogeneous etherification with methyl chloride. The DS of methylcellulose is the average number of hydroxyl groups substituted by methoxyl groups in anhydroglucosidic units. This kind of polymer enhances water viscosity; enhance cohesion, and stability of cement based systems. Such characteristics of adhesive properties show the potential of this material to utilize for tile setting in civil engineering.
In a study to test the feasibility to incorporate bagasse into polymer matrices, SCB fibres were etherified with acetic anhydride, toluene, acetic acid, and perchloric acid for 5 hours. Composites were prepared with polyester resin, modified SCB, and as well as with unmodified SCB. After curing for around 24 hours the materials were submitted to tensile test. Composites of modified sugarcane bagasse fibres by etherification revealed better mechanical strength with 71.5% increase in tensile modulus in comparison to the pure polymer. The study revealed that the modified sugarcane bagasse fibres are an attractive option for reinforcing in thermosetting polymer.
Recently global wide researchers are concerned in applying different methods to incorporate bagasse fibres into various types of polymer composites to utilize the adhesive properties of sugarcane cellulose. Bagasse fibres based composites used as core materials are found as a prospective solution to replace expensive wood based fibreboard. In the study, sugarcane bagasse was treated in alkaline solution for three days, and then naturally dried and crushed. The composites of short and granule bagasse fibre were mixed with polystyrene, then dried and hot pressed. The bending strength and compressive strength of the composites were found to increase with decrease in bagasse fibre size, and combination of short fibre and granules were stronger, compared to the board with short fibre of bagasse as a matrix.
In order to improve the adhesion at the interface of the composites obtainable from renewable resources, sugarcane bagasse fibres were treated for an hour and dried at 105⁰C with resin-based reagent sodium lignosulphate(NaLS). The study revealed that due to the adsorption between lignin of sugarcane and sodium lignosulphate (NaLS) adhesion is increased at the fibre-matrix interface.
Adhesive properties of Lignocellulosic composition of sugarcane have been tested and utilized in a study for the production of particleboards. Potential use of sugarcane bagasse as a raw material and new alternative for particle board production by using castor oil based two-component polyurethane adhesive was studied in another work. Particle boards with sugarcane bagasse of two different fibre lengths (5mm and 8mm) of same density, and castor oil based two component polyurethane adhesive was tested in the experiment. The particle boards with 8mm bagasse fibre presented good mechanical properties, which is suitable for use in civil, agricultural construction as well as suitable for use in environments, with low exposure to moisture.
In another study, friction coefficient and wear resistance of sugarcane fibre/polyester (SCRP) and glass fibre/polyester (GRP) composites were tested to evaluate the comparative adhesive friction and wear characteristics, by sliding them against stainless steel in parallel and anti-parallel orientations with different operating parameters like load, speed and test duration. The experiment revealed that SCRP composite can provide good degree of wear resistance and friction coefficient, comparable to GRP, when sliding against stainless steel. The result proved that SCRP is a promising composite, which can be a competitive to GRP composites, and the SCF has the better ability of bonding, with the polyester matrix.


Although, Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, but still most of the bagasse is discarded in unproductive ways like for energy generation of the sugar plant to process sugar, used as manure, or simply burnt, which is directly tied to air pollution.
New application of sugarcane bagasse will reduce such unproductive use as well as successfully replace the synthetic/petroleum based adhesive products. Development of bio-resin adhesive systems are increasingly becoming important and promising solution to replace synthetic products due to the need to deliver environmentally improved system, without compromising with durability or ease of bonding. Bio-resins, derived from plant sources are now replacing phenol formaldehyde and iso-cyanate resins in the manufacture of composite products.

Worldwide production of sugarcane

Although the present bagasse production is almost entirely burnt, but still there is an excess of bagasse. If we can utilize bagasse to produce glycosyle and sugarcane adhesives, we can replace the synthetic adhesives, as well as reduce environmental pollution by introducing new products that are completely biodegradable. Researchers are applying different techniques to enhance the adhesive properties to exploit the immense potential of the renewable resources to successfully replace the synthetic adhesives.


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