Syrian Refugees Research Paper Sample
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The Syrian crisis is one among the several political disasters that has rendered people homeless. Syrian refugees have undergone the most horrific terror in recent times. As if the Syrian Civil War wasn’t enough, the refugees are now fleeing the country to escape rape and gruesome assault at the hands of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). People are starving in Syria; eating cats, dogs and even grass. The tormenting climatic conditions add to their woes. This kind of social problem isn’t limited to the Arab countries; it is persistent all over the world. Even minority sections from the Western countries are subjected to similar conditions. The United Nations and several human rights groups are joining hands to offer help. But, given that the number of refugees is on the rise, little can be done to tackle this social cause. I will identify the regular problems confronted by the Syrian refugees as the core aspect of this research paper. Specific NGOs, business firms and international government aids are discussed in order to analyze if they are successfully assisting the refugees. Role of individuals and communities are also discussed for refraining from such political crisis in future. This paper has to be discussed in two contexts: the catastrophe caused by the Civil War, and the takeover of Syria by the Islamic State militants.
The Syrian crisis resulted out of rampant social movements in the recent past. The Middle East was in a rampage to bring about social change and usher in democracy. The Syrian Civil War can be explained by theories of deindividualization. The citizens lost their identity and self-esteem under the authoritarian rule of the Assad’s regime. Owing to the successful toppling of governments in Libya and Egypt; the Syrian citizens were motivated to have a free society. The mass hysteria and conflict was accelerated through the social media, which has been a predominant factor in bringing about social changes. But, the Syrian Civil War has been a massive failure, and now Syria lies in a state of immense crisis. No social movement can reform its condition, as irreversible damage has been done by the Islamic State militants. Theories that explained other social movements can’t be implied here, as Syrian refugees are an outcome of both the Syrian Civil War and ISIS terrorism.
Now, I shall discuss how various significant sectors are catering to the homeless Syrians refugees.
Role of the international community, NGO and business organizations. Host countries have shown great camaraderie by providing some employment opportunities to the refugees. The Syrian refugees find casual and irregular work in informal sectors, which doesn’t require skilled professionals. About 30% of adult Syrian refugees in Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq are engaged in sporadic employment that offers low wage levels. The refugees have been given access to reside in urban sectors and get access to a higher number of work opportunities. Unfortunately, there are plenty of limitations for the Syrian refugees even in the urban areas. Refugee registration entitles them to humanitarian assistance and some public services. But, the refugees require legal work permit to work in Lebanon or Jordan. Thus, it is only the casual work sector that offers them some source of income generation. Syrian refugees in Iraq (Kurdish Region) are permitted to work. Here, livelihood conditions are less competitive but, access to humanitarian aids is lower than in Jordan. Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq have shown great solidarity towards the Syrian refugees, though they are not signatories to the 1951 Refugee Convention (Zetter and Ruaudel).
Amnesty International is doing a great work in raising awareness and campaigning on behalf of the refugees. Their assistance isn’t limited to the Middle East. They are working towards sheltering the displaced Syrians in Western countries as well. They are campaigning for the rights of Syrian refugees, documenting war crimes in Syria and doing everything that would make a difference. Amnesty emerged victorious as its campaigns pushed the UK government to give shelter to the Syrian refugees in the UK. But, it is challenging as only 51 people have been given access to the UK as compared to 1.4million in Lebanon. Amnesty is persistently highlighting the plight of the Syrian refugees by emphasizing upon the healthcare requirements and campaigning against war crimes. It demands greater protection for those seeking refuge in the European Union. It is also training Syrians for protecting civilians. This is an on-ground training (Amnesty).
Business organizations can also contribute towards this cause by employing refugees and providing them basic benefits (other than salary). Clerical jobs or low level vacancies can be filled by the refugees. The hotel/tourism/industrial sectors can do a great deal in tackling the tragedy of refugees. Low level hotel and tourism jobs don’t specifically need degrees/ certificates. Applicants can be trained as they start working. Research shows that the Syrian refugee influx influences job opportunities in the private sector of Jordan. Syrian workers highly compete with the citizens in the non-official labor market. Syrian refugees secured over 31,000 jobs, which is 91 per cent of job opportunities that Jordan is required to create annually (Albawaba Business). But, high immigration negatively affects businesses and economy of host countries. An Economic and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) conducted by the World Bank and the United Nations on request of the Government of Lebanon revealed that the macro-economic impact of the Syrian crisis upon Lebanon has been negative. During 2012-2014, the conflict negatively impacted the GDP growth of Lebanon by 2.9 percent annually. Large losses are reported in wages, profits, taxes or private consumption and investment. An anticipated loss of US$ 7.5 billion in economic activity is predicted with a loss in government revenue worth US$ 1.6 billion, and a hike in government expenditure of US$ 1.2 billion (United Nations Refugee Agency).
It is impossible to ward off war crimes and political turmoil. Hence, a comprehensive approach towards safeguarding the rights of displaced refugees can resolve various issues. The United Nations has come forward through various humanitarian programmes and The Regional Response Plan 6 (RRP6) 2014 programme is one of its significant propositions. A projected number of 2.85 million Syrian refugees were collectively present across Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq. A three-year Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP) were implemented. Funding worth US$4.2 billion was requested from the international community (Zetter and Ruaudel).
A heightened analysis is needed about easing coordination among international humanitarian and development assistance with national development strategies. This can effectively minimize the negative influences and maximize development goals. A thorough analysis is required about the structural impacts of the refugee crisis upon regional trade. Studying labor-market dynamics under conditions of severe economic shock and extreme over-supply of labor is urgent. In order to address issues related to costs, livelihood requirements of the refugees and the host populations, a trial programme Quick Impact Projects (QIPs), can be an ideal solution. Cash-for-work programmes, vocational and skills development training would be core aspects of this programme. Safeguarding the rights of refugees can be boosted by forming a rights-based orientation within the governance structures of countries (Zetter and Ruaudel).
Syrian refugees are witnessing a surge in various medical conditions that need urgent treatment. It is either economic depravity or fear of social seclusion that is preventing them from availing medical facilities. Health responses to forced migration during disaster periods cater mainly to the humanitarian needs and resolution of communicable diseases. The latest Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) report shows that the main need of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon revolves around primary health care, treatment of chronic diseases, and ante-natal concerns. The Lebanon healthcare infrastructure includes 165 hospitals and 158 primary healthcare centers. Medical care is offered free of charge by various relief services, e.g. French, Moroccan,
MSF and Saudi camps (El-Khatib et al.).
The above plans may sound too administrative and it is often difficult for refugees to get adequate information about their rights. If administering legal formalities are a priority, then setting up information desks and help centers are even more useful. Refugee crisis cannot be served by a one-man army. It requires catering to the needs of different sections of the population. Among the numerous horrific acts committed during war crimes; brutal rape still dominates the crime list. No governmental help can offer solace unless NGOs and rehab centers are set up to deal with post-trauma syndromes. It is impossible to target social change if traumatized women are not given the much needed assistance. Syrian National Coalition, Amnesty International, the International Rescue Committee, the International Federation for Human Rights, Human Rights Watch etc. can do a great deal in safeguarding honor of women. Health and education camps need to be developed for imparting information and transforming societal perceptions about women, who survive rape. Preventing women from succumbing to depression must be emphasized. Refugee crisis require international attention; but, if they are not addressed at a local level, international help won’t do any good. Of course, we can’t expect any assistance from the Assad’s regime!
Amnesty International. Support our work for Syrian refugees. 2014. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.
Albawaba Business. Scapegoating or economic reality? Syrian refugees claim 91% of Jordanian
private sector jobs. 29 Oct. 2014. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.
El-Khatib et al. Syrian refugees, between rocky crisis in Syria and hard inaccessibility to
healthcare services in Lebanon and Jordan. Conflict and Health. 7(18). (2013). Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
Fisher, Nigel. Foreword: the inheritance of loss. Forced Migration Review. (47). (2014): 4-5.
Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
United Nations Refugee Agency. Countries hosting Syrian refugees. Solidarity and burden
sharing. Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.
Zetter, R., &Ruaudel, H. Development and protection challenges of the Syrian refugee crisis.
Forced Migration Review, (47). (2014): 6-10. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
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