The Microscopic Anatomy Of Muscles Essays Examples
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Macroscopic Anatomy (from the Greek “makros” - large) studies the structure of the body, certain organs and parts at a level accessible to the naked eye, or with instruments that give a slight increase (for example, magnifying glass). Microscopic anatomy of muscles is also studying the structure of each type at the tissue (histology) and cells level (cytology) and their functions. This helps understand principles of their functioning, energy conversion processes and methods of treatment of their pathologies better.
Depending on the functions all the muscles are divided into skeletal, smooth and cardiac. The first type forms the musculoskeletal system and is about 40% of the muscle, the second - is part of the internal organs, blood vessels and skin, the third - is the basis of the heart. Structural element of muscle - the muscle fiber is a cell, capable of contraction, which is from 10 to 100 microns in diameter. It is enclosed in a sheath, called sarcolemma, which is filled with sarcoplasm. There are myofibrils, filamentary formation consisting of sarcomeres, in the sarcoplasm. Depending on the number of myofibrils biologists distinguish between red and white muscle fibers. White fibers contain more myofibrils and less sarcoplasmic, so that they can contract more quickly. Red fibers contain a bigger amount of myoglobin, which is why they are so called. In the sarcoplasm muscle fibers are also present mitochondria, ribosomes, golgi complex, the inclusion of lipids and other organelles. The structure of sarcomeres consists of thick myosin filaments and thin actin filaments.
Actin - contractile protein that uses energy, contained in the ATP, for contractions. Myosin - the main muscle protein, constituting 65% of the total muscle mass. In general, the muscle tissue is composed of water, protein, and small amounts of other substances glycogen lipid extractable nitrogen compounds, salts of organic and inorganic acids. The amount of water is 72-80% of the total weight.
Remington, L.A. (2012). Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual System. St. Louis, SL: Elsevier Inc.
Cochran, E.F. (2011). Laboratory Manual for Comparative Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology. New York, NY: Delmar.
Kuehnel, W. (2003). Color Atlas of Cytology, Histology, and Microscopic Anatomy.New York, NY: Thieme New York.
Krstic, R. V. (1997) Human Microscopic Anatomy: An Atlas for Students of Medicine and Biology. Heidelberg: Springer-verlag.
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