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Industrialization mostly involves social as well as economic changes in the society in order to transform human activities and operations (Bernabé, & Sheiham, 2014, pp. 117). Industrialization also involves modernization process and activities that involve social change and economic development in the society. Historically, industrialization of various countries began during the agrarian period and was mostly associated with technological and creativity and innovation activities and productions in various countries globally. In most cases, industrialization also covers large-scale production especially in the manufacturing industry. Furthermore, industrialization also involves various philosophical and sociological changes in the society that aims at providing positive attitudes and perceptions in various business operations in the society (Bernabé, & Sheiham, 2014, pp. 116).
According to several research-based studies and reports, there are various factors that promotes industrialization activities and practices in various countries globally including political activities, business legal environments as well as availability of natural resources and skilled labor in the society ((Bernabé, & Sheiham, 2014, pp. 118). The history of industrial development in various developed countries indicates that the provision of proper trade policies in countries such as Germany, Great Britain, and United States promoted their industrial development. These trade policies and tariffs were mainly provided by the government of these countries. Infant industry protection and provision of foreign trade systems were used by government in developed countries in order to promote and improve industrialization process. The state also intervenes by improving domestic economy, capital accumulation as well as through infrastructural and educational development systems. In global developed countries such as France and Germany, agricultural development by various government agencies facilitated the industrial development of these countries. The state also intervenes in industrial development of developed countries by providing conditions for bilateral trade policies and other trade agreement negotiation systems with other global countries (Bernabé, & Sheiham, 2014, pp. 115).
In that sense, the main aim and purpose of this paper is to determine and evaluate the extent to which developed countries need state intervention in order for them to industrialize. The paper will focus on various developed and industrialize countries such as United States of America, Great Britain as well as East Asia among many other nations globally.
How the state contributed to the Industrialization of Developed Countries
According to a number of research-based studies and publications, there are a number of technological factors and political factors that usually promote industrialization in various countries globally (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 70). Industrialization mostly results in the economic development and growth of various countries globally thus state intervention mostly contributes towards the growth of industrialization of various countries globally. According to a number of studies and reports, United Kingdom and the United States of America form some of the first global countries to embrace industrial revolution especially during late eighteenth century (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 71). However, by the end of the twentieth century it was clear that East Asia was one of the global regions which were mostly industrialized in the world (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 68).
According to studies and reports it is clear that a number of countries such as Germany, France as well as Great Britain and United States of America underwent a number of government interventions in order to promote their industrialization process (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 72). However, these government interventions were different from each country globally. For example, the main factor that contributed to the industrialization of Great Britain was an industrial revolution that contributed to the rapid industrialization of the country. The country also benefited from various trade policies including the navigation procedures that were provided by the government through its political and military power systems in the country. In the United States of America, the government promoted industrialization process through improving foreign trade as well as through intervening in various domestic economic policies especially through direct and indirect ways (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 75). The government also incorporated various capital accumulation systems through institutional development strategies, through promoting infrastructural development and through providing research and development training to various individuals in the society. The United States also valued early industrial protection systems especially through intellectual. This is because most individuals in the United States valued education, and it was through early education practices that the country managed to promote industrial activities and operations (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 77). Institutional development and training also form some of state interventions that were applied in various countries in order to promote industrialization systems (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 79).
Furthermore, in developed countries such as United Kingdom, France as well as Germany and United States the promotion of agricultural activities and business operations by government agencies forms some of the procedures that were applied in order to promote industrial revolution and industrialization in these countries (Kobayashi, Okada, Cooharojananone, Bracamonte, & Suzuki 2013, pp. 184). The process of industrial development was also promoted by various government and state interventions such as increase of domestic savings in order to finance and improve the countries capital accumulation systems (Dror, & Allen 2014, pp. 81).
In early stages of the industrial development of developed countries such as United States of America and Great Britain foreign investment activities initiated by various government policies and agencies for trade promote their industrialization systems (Üstüner, & Holt, 2010, pp. 37). The government also provided majority of industrial sectors in these developed countries with high bargaining power especially towards the protection and promotion of their bilateral trade systems (Wamboye, Adekola, & Sergi 2014, pp. 335). The government also involved in various trade treaties with other countries with the aim of promoting industrialization in these developed countries (Baek, & Qian 2011, pp. 121).
There are also some cases that the government intervened in industrial development of various developed countries such as United States by involving and incorporating military power, as well as political power in various industrial development activities and operations in the country. In that sense, it is clear and evident that the government interventions contributed a lot towards the industrialization of various global countries (Eichhorst, Rodríguez-Planas, Schmidl & Zimmermann, 2015, pp. 314).
Despite this, in East Asia countries the majority of states intervene towards the development of industrialization of their countries by industrial policies and trade policies that promoted trade and high foreign exchange in the country (Khanna 2014, pp. 65). The state also promoted and expanded export promotion systems in these countries leading to more capital accumulation, infrastructural development as well as high growth and development towards food supply in the country. The government of these developed countries also promoted high educational institutional growth and development in order to provide skilled based labor systems in the society (Khanna 2014, pp. 69).
In Great Britain, the major state interventions towards the development of the country include the provision of foreign trade policies and proper economic relations with other countries especially its colonies in late 1850s (Üstüner, & Holt 2010, pp. 40). The governments also intervene by providing proper transition from farm production activities towards factory and manufacturing based operations and productions in the country. The government also managed to provide various firms in the country with contracts, preserve their property rights including intellectual property of various firms in the country leading to more industrialization (Üstüner, & Holt 2014, pp. 267). The government also ensured that all public services including technological based activities and procedures were provided in accordance to trade policies. This promoted economic growth and development in these developed countries leading to faster industrialization systems (Dakouré 2013, pp. 887).
The state also intervened by managing to liberalize foreign trade systems in various business rules and policies that promoted the flexibility of labor force systems in the country (Khanna 2014, pp. 68). In addition, the state also managed to eliminate rules and policies that were restricting trade activities between various regions and these provided effective business environment and conditions for faster industrialization of developed countries (Khanna 2014, pp. 58).
The state also intervened in both social and economic aspects of the industrial development of developed countries. For example, railway development policies and procedures were introduced by the Great Britain government in order to promote industrialization activities and operations in the country in early eighteenth century (Khanna 2014, pp. 60).The state also incorporated policies such as political control of trade in order to involve local government and central government in various economic activities in many developed countries worldwide. In some countries such as East Asia countries including China social and cultural policies contributed largely to the industrial development process (Dakouré 2013, pp. 880).
However, in late industrialization process a lot of state interventions mainly focused on the provision of technological conditions for effective industrial development in developed countries (Khanna 2014, pp. 66). The technological changes in the country also promoted commercial manufacturing as well as large-scale agricultural activities in a number of developed countries globally. Furthermore, there was also high population growth in a number of developed countries globally leading more economic development and growth of the country's economic systems. Some developed countries such as United States of America also experienced low death rates during late industrialization leading to high economic development in the country (Khanna 2014, pp. 68). It was also clear and evident that the use and application of government strategies led to proper and cost effective supplies in the country (Baek, & Qian 2011, pp 119). There were also high institutional changes that were provided by the government in the society. These changes initiated foreign resources exchange, high availability of skills and other foreign affairs systems among various countries globally (Dakouré 2013, pp. 888).
In conclusion, there are various ways and procedures through which government and state interventions improved the industrial development of various developed countries globally. For example, in developed countries such as United States of America, Germany as well as France and Great Britain the government intervene towards their industrial development through provision of foreign trade policies, proper infrastructural development and through the provision of various capital accumulation systems. In Great Britain, the industrial revolution contributed to the industrialization of the country and was achieved mainly through foreign investment systems and through domestic saving for capital accumulation in the country. Furthermore, in countries such as United States of America the government also incorporated legal, political and military power in order to promote industrial development in the country. There were also R & D training procedures that were initiated by the government in the country in order to promote industrial development in the country. It is also clear from a number of research-based studies and reports that the government interventions used in various developed countries globally were varied and different. Liberalization of trade tariffs by the government in various countries also promoted their industrial development.
Proper foreign trade policies, proper military base powers as well as availability of natural resources also forms some of the factors that promoted industrial development in various developed countries globally. In United States of America, the provision of proper educational reforms and policies promoted the availability of skilled labor that integrated the use of high technological and innovative industrial activities in the country. Therefore, it is clear that government and the state contributed largely towards developed countries industrial development activities and operations.
Baek, K, & Qian, X 2011, 'An Analysis On Political Risks And The Flow Of Foreign Direct Investment In Developing And Industrialized Economies', Economics, Management & Financial Markets, 6, 4, pp. 60-91,121,
Bernabé, E, & Sheiham, A 2014, 'Age, Period and Cohort Trends in Caries of Permanent Teeth in Four Developed Countries', American Journal of Public Health, 104, 7, pp. 115-119
Dakouré, AP 2013, 'Cotton-4 and the Cotton Subsidies Issue: A Litmus Test for the WTO's Benefits to Least-Developed Countries', Journal of World Investment & Trade, 14, 5, pp. 852-888,
Dror, D, & Allen, L 2014, 'Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes', Nutrition Reviews, 72, 2, pp. 68-81,
Eichhorst, W, Rodríguez-Planas, N, Schmidl, R, & Zimmermann, K 2015, 'A Road Map to Vocational Education and Training in Industrialized Countries', Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 68, 2, pp. 314-337,
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Kobayashi, T, Okada, H, Cooharojananone, N, Bracamonte, V, & Suzuki, T 2013, 'how Can Electronic Commerce in Developing Countries Attract Users from Developed Countries? A Comparative Study of Thailand and Japan', International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 4, 2, pp. 159-184,
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Wamboye, E, Adekola, A, & Sergi, B 2014, 'Foreign aid, legal origin, economic growth and Africa’s least developed countries', Progress in Development Studies, 14, 4, pp. 335-357,
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