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Annotated Bibliography – MLA – 7 pages
1. Abrahamson, Eric. "Avoiding Repetitive Change Syndrome." MIT Sloan Management Review 45.2 (2004): 93-5. ProQuest. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
Abrahamson states that multiple sources believe that some change is good, and more change is better. The motto for change is based on destruction in a creative manner justified by the need to survive; therefore, it is reasonable that change is not required if there is nothing wrong. Abrahamson believes change is good to a certain point, but change just to be changing is not beneficial. In cases where a company creates too many initiatives, the employees are stressed. The organization has entered a state where change is performed for no reason over and over. Resources are the indicator of how much change should occur and an evaluation of the need for change keeps alterations within the limits of discomfort.
2. Lipton, Mark. "Demystifying the Development of an Organizational Vision." Sloan management review 37.4 (1996): 83. ProQuest. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
Litpton states that companies need a vision as a basis for operations, but managers can fail to recognize the goals of a vision. He believes a vision promotes performance, initiates positive change, creates groundwork for organizational planning, and centers corporate decisions. A company needs a mission to drive corporate strategy and organizational culture. The vision combines these three elements for successful operations. However, failure of a vision results in inconsistencies with management goals. Visions can be too limited, inappropriate, incomplete, or without a method for compliance.
3. Ready, Douglas A., and Jay A. Conger. "Enabling Bold Visions." MIT Sloan Management Review 49.2 (2008): 70-6. ProQuest. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
Competition in the marketplace promotes a periodic re-evaluation of the company’s vision, mission statement, and procedure. Senior management may encourage an attractive vision that motivates the company temporarily. This happens due to failure to promote the vision, obstacles created by internal politics, lack of employee engagement, and failure to acquire new skills necessary for vision attainment. The Five Phase Change Model decreases the separation between enthusiastic participation and application. It proposes a presentation of the demands of the company as compelling narrations to develop a plan of action, allocating components of the vision to expand skills, coordinate the workforce and processes, and formulate the vision into realization.
4. Lawrence, Thomas B. "The Underlying Structure of Continuous Change." MIT Sloan Management Review 47.4 (2006): 59-66. ProQuest. Web. 1 Mar. 2014.
The traditional models of change promote occasional renovations, but only when indicated by a certain incident. Contemporary companies are required to re-evaluate processes continually to keep current with the demands of the marketplace. The authors promote a “four phase cycle of continuous change”. The cycle contains components that perform the changes: autocrats, educators, champions, architects, and evangelists. The role of the autocrat is to select ideas and incorporate them through license. Educators encourage understanding concerning employee responsibilities resulting in creativity. Architects create processes to build change into the structure of the company. Evangelists use their importance to develop and disseminate ideas. The cycle persists.
5. Schein, Edgar H. "Three cultures of management: the key to organizational learning." Sloan management review 38.1 (1996): 9. ProQuest. Web. 1 Mar. 2014.
Change is crucial to the success of an organization, and Schein attempts to demonstrate why a company remains stagnant or why promotion of positive change falters. Employees may buck changes or management is inadequate. The three cultures in every company are executives, engineers, and operators. When communication fails, education doesn’t take place. By coordinating the three cultures, comprehension is attained. However, Schein does not offer a model to point out how to achieve this communication.
6. Spreitzer, Gretchen M., and Robert E. Quinn. "Empowering Middle Managers to be Transformational Leaders." The Journal of applied behavioral science 32.3 (1996): 237. ProQuest. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
LEAD is a program initiated by Ford Motor Corporation in 1980’s to direct middle managers in improving their methods, elevate their performance, and function in an optimum manner to contribute to the success of the company. A study by the authors reveals that managers with the most self-esteem, ability to influence, and a supportive network are most inclined to attain transformational change. Designation of managers showing a certain attitude increases the changes of successful change. LEAD was found to be highly effective at all levels of management.
7. Lawler,Edward E., I.,II. "Substitutes for Hierarchy." Incentive 163.3 (1989): 39. ProQuest. Web. 2 Mar. 2014
Most companies employ expanded chains of command which Lawler finds offensive. He states that the reduction of multiple levels of management will decrease the cost of operations and promote effectiveness. Options to multiple levels of management include developing groups for specific tasks, pave the way for new technology, and increase job satisfaction; Lawler states the expenses for these changes should not exceed the cost of the eliminated managers. He admits that some upper level management is required for executive determinations, planning of strategies, and implementing the vision of the organization.
8. Stalk Jr., George; Black, Jill E. “The myth of the horizontal organization”. Canadian Business Review;Winter94, Vol. 21 Issue 4, p26
The article discusses the concept of horizontal organization and promotes the idea that the success of the company is due to the organization of central processes addressing customer requirements rather than the architecture of the corporation. In fact, it is the process structure that dictates the organizational framework. Since there are various methods of organizing processes and multiple styles of structures, a partnership of the two needs to complement each other. When creating structure, it is vital that the influence of infrastructure be taken into consideration.
9. Kotter, John P. "Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. (Cover Story)." Harvard Business Review 73.2 (1995): 59-67. Health Business Elite. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
Kotter evaluated over 100 prominent organizations that attempted to refit themselves in an effort to address new threats. While the processes for change utilized various labels, the purposes were the same. Few renovations were completely effective and several were complete failures. Kotter states eight central problems with the changes. They include not promoting a state of seriousness, lack of strong alliance, poor vision, not passing on the vision, inability to eliminate the barriers to the new vision, ineffective relation of the vision, lack of attention to milestones, and an inability to maintain cultural alterations.
10. Spear, Steven J. "Learning To Lead At Toyota." Harvard Business Review 82.5 (2004): 78-86. Health Business Elite. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.
The Toyota Production System (TPS) is so successful that many companies attempted to copy it. Spear states their efforts were futile due to an inability to recognize the basic concepts of TPS. The article relates how a promising new employee from the United States discovered that problems with equipment required direct observation versus attempting to solve the problem later. He also realized that alterations to processes to address the problems need to be tested and inconsistencies eliminated. He discovered other members of the organization should be included in the changes, from employees to management. Spear states that the management at Torota discovered TPS be implementation rather than in a training seminar; Americans frequently learn through someone else’s successes.
11. Beer, Michael Eisenstat, Russell A.Spector, Bert. "Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change." Harvard Business Review 68.6 (1990): 158-166. Health Business Elite. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.
As the number of competitors grows, organizations recognize that change is vital. Evaluation of six large corporation over a span of four years revealed that upper management holds onto two expectation to introduce different systems to change workplace attitudes. The authors propose this system is incorrect. They put forth that general managers should introduce change at the bottom levels of the company since they are better at evaluating the effects on production rather than esoteric aspects of corporate ideals. Six phases of change were discussed.
12. Spear, Steven, and H. Kent Bowen. "Decoding the DNA of the Toyota production system." Harvard Business Review 77 (1999): 96-108.
The Toyota Production System symbolizes the success of a continuous change process and multiple companies attempted to mimic it, but failed. Spear and Bowen promote the ideas that TPS is triumphant in achieving their goals by applying four statutes. First, all phases of production is informed of expected results, timing, and stages of the process; failure at any point allows the problem to be addressed at one. Second, each member of the workforce is education of his responsibilities and contacts. Third, certain employees receive specific goods in the process of production. Fourth, changes need to be implemented through an employee capable of incorporating them using a scientific approach at a lower level.
13. Manuela Pardo, del Val, and Martinez Fuentes Clara. "Resistance to Change: A Literature Review and Empirical Study." Management Decision 41.1 (2003): 148-55. ProQuest. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.
14. Oreg, Shaul, Maria Vakola, and Achilles Armenakis. "Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change; a 60-year review of quantitative studies." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 47.4 (2011): 461-524.
Using 79 studies administered in the period between 1948 and 2007, the authors reviewed quantitative empirical data concerning the workforce attitude regarding organization changes. The finding was that three areas influenced successful change: results of change, specific reactions to the change, and antecedents. The quality of the employee, level of dedication, effectiveness of management, level of support, and other factors are considered to be reaction antecedents. Physical, mental, and levels compliance are explicit reactions. The results from application are levels of job satisfaction and production. Employees may feel positive after the change, or withdrawn. The authors encourage future research and possible uses of the results.
15. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition".Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 2: Rethinking organizational change
Burke believes Chief Executive Officers attempt to impact their company successfully, but many fail. Change is hard, requiring adequate reasons and training to incorporate it. Burke attempted to present change case for nonprofit corporations, governmental agencies, general organizations, and institutions of higher learning. By evaluating the influences of outside factors, companies can determine the basis of changes. In addition, the influences inside the company assist in promoting an argument for change.
16. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 5: Nature of organization change
Burke proposes there are two categories of change: revolutionary/transformational and evolutionary/transactional. Large changes meant to be permanent that impact every process of production are revolutionary changes. When a portion of the business is targeted for improvement that will not impact larger processes, it is evolutionary change.
17. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 6: Levels of Organizational Change
Levels of organizational change include individuals, groups, and the entire company. Burke states that to alter employees one by one, it must be done by the appropriate person offering education and support. Larger influences require formation of collection of people broken down into coordinated components that work together. This is more intricate and difficult. Burke states this process must decide the stages of change with a clear idea of the process. Discovery of the reason for the change allows organization and implementation.
18. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 8: Conceptual Models for understanding organization change
Chapter 8 breaks down change into what area is addressed and ways to alter it based on theory and practical application. The theories of evolutionary, dialectical, teleological, and life cycle address the system. Burke proposes they sometimes address the same issues and companies actually change more frequently than implies in the theories. He addresses Lewin’s three steps, practical frameworks, transaction, and the levels of anticipated change. None offer a complete solution for the process, so companies need to alter them as required.
19. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 10: The Burke–Litwin Causal Model of Organization Performance and Change
The model is dissected for clarification and arguments offered on the validity. The reason for the creation of the model is to provide a sophisticated approach to creating organizational change. Burke validates the model and refers to various supportive studies for both components and the entirety.
20. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 11: Organizational culture change
Organizational culture is defined by Burke as “the way employees do things”. In order to grasp the basis of the culture of a company, it is first necessary to address basic and incorporated beliefs and artifacts. These are how a company looks, the presentation of available products and services, and the physical impact of the location; these are what impact a person first. Next, accepted ideas and values and personal style require attention Finally, it is necessary to understand what motivates the employees and how to they explain their actions. By focusing on this information, it is possible to successfully alter the culture of a company.
21. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 13: Transformational Leadership
A leader can create action which would otherwise not happen. The difference between a leader and managers is how they create action; a leader uses his position in the organization as a motivator while a manager uses it to intimidate. Burke says transformational leaders creat changes that last because they have specific distinctions. Senior management fits into one of four theories and the author discusses these. They include theories of vision, behavior, strategy, and concepts.
22. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 14: Leading Organizational Change
Burke introduces part of organization change as pre-launch, launch, and post-launch. In the pre-launch phase, an evaluation of leaders takes place followed by an investigation of outside influence. The reason for change is determined to give employees a specific vision and their expected contributions. The launch phase involves promoting an employee understanding of the reason for the change, introducing methods to gain their attention, and address areas of resistance. The post-launch period develops various advantages, creating organization, dealing with emotions resisting changes, adherence to planned activities, and repetition of the information surrounding the change. The ability to cope with unexpected results will solidify the change in place.
23. Burke, W. Warner. "Organization Change; Theory and Practice,4th edition". Los Angeles. SAGE Publications, Inc., 2014. Printed.
Chapter 16: Organization change; what we need to know
There are eight components necessary to address in regards to organizational change. 1) Flexibility and open lines of communication during disorganization will cement changes in place. 2) Changing the culture and style of management allow organizational change. 3) The leader of the process must determine the structure of the organization (self-directed, decentralized, centralized, and so on). 4) The use of formal, informal, and intrinsic motivational stimuli are important. The other four areas address training, creation of teams, the size of the company in relation to its production, and determining the importance of different educational activities.
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