Chronic Kidney Disease Report Examples
It is estimated that in the US alone, over twenty-five million individuals have their kidney or kidneys, progressed to at least Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Stage 3 (National Kidney Foundation, 2011). This number is alarmingly increasing each year while the age range of those with the said condition is getting wider. Needless to say, CKD is a worldwide medical problem, and that it requires a global effort especially efficient early detection and treatment of CKD (Levey et al., 2005).
In technical terms, CKD is a kidney damage wherein the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is the amount of blood that passes through the tiny filters in the kidneys, called the glomeruli, per minute, is less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 within three months or more regardless of the cause (Levey et al., 2005). Basically, this means that individuals with CKD have decreased kidney abilities, hence, their kidneys are unable to function properly. Unfortunately, CKD gets worse without proper treatment until a kidney failure, which is when the kidneys are unable to function anymore (Tonelli et al., 2006).
While CKD directly affects the kidneys, complications arise due to the decreased abilities of the kidneys. Although it may develop slowly, eventually, people with CKD tend to develop cardiovascular complications such as high blood pressure and anemia. Other complications may also result from the accumulation of wastes in the bloodstream due to the inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood (“About Chronic Kidney Disease”, nd).
With these complications and risks, it is, therefore, clear that CKD is a serious health threat that should be diagnosed and treated early. Moreover, programs that could prevent the progression to CKD are also encouraged.
Causes and Symptoms of CKD
CKD affects any individual regardless of gender and age. However, different groups have varying chances of developing CKD. Although the effects of CKD are more apparent when the disease is more intense, several symptoms may be observed from individuals with CKD. Those who have CKD tend to have decreased energy and always feel tired, and, of course, they tend to urinate frequently, especially at night. In addition, they have trouble concentrating and sleeping while most of them experience muscle cramping especially at night. Moreover, swollen feet, ankles and around the eyes are common to those who have CKD. Furthermore, they have poor appetite and have dry, itchy skin (“About Chronic Kidney Disease”, nd; Nahas, 2005).
Almost two-thirds of the cases of patients with CKD are caused by diabetes and high blood pressure (Tonelli et al., 2006). A diabetic person has high blood sugar level which could lead to serious organ damages including the kidneys. Once the damage is done to the kidneys, it progresses into CKD. Hypertension or high blood pressure, on the other hand, may cause CKD due to the high pressure of the blood against the blood vessels' walls. Conversely, CKD may also cause high blood pressure due to the accumulation of wastes in the bloodstream (“About Chronic Kidney Disease”, nd).
Other causes of CKD may be from: Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the glomeruli), polycystic kidney disease, lupus, tumors, kidney stones, frequent urinary infections and malformations of the kidneys of fetuses (“About Chronic Kidney Disease”, nd).
In addition to these facts, studies have shown that those at risk of having CKD are those who have diabetes and high blood pressure; thus, groups that have higher risk of having diabetes and high blood pressure also have high risk of developing CKD (Tonelli et al., 2006; Nahas, 2005). These groups include African Americans, Asian, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic Americans. Moreover, those with family history of CKD have an increased risk of developing kidney diseases. Generally, older individuals also have higher tendencies of having CKD than younger individuals (“About Chronic Kidney Disease”, nd).
Diagnosis and Treatment of CKD
In general, earlier detection of any disorder means higher chance of slowing or stopping the disease from progressing or developing other complications. In the case of CKD, the best way to check is by having the GFR measured. Doctors calculate GFR from blood creatinine test and the patient’s personal information, including age, gender, and race. The GFR of a patient usually indicates the CKD stage, and it is considered by doctors for deciding the treatment (Nahas, 2005; Tonelli et al., 2006). However, detection of kidney diseases may also be from ultrasound, CT scan or kidney biopsy. Ultrasound and CT scan are performed to get an image of the kidneys and urinary tract, which is used to check for complications like a kidney stone, tumor, and other problems. On the other hand, kidney biopsy is performed to check for specific kidney diseases. The biopsy indicates the magnitude of the damage of the kidneys which is useful in planning the treatment (“About Chronic Kidney Disease”, nd).
The gold standard for treating CKD is a kidney transplant, especially cases with end-stage kidney diseases. However, treatments may vary depending on the cause of CKD. Tumors, kidney stones, and cysts may be removed by surgeries while CKD from infections may be slowed by antibiotics. Furthermore, dialysis may prolong the life of individuals with CKD while transplantation is unavailable (Castner, 2008).
“About Chronic Kidney Disease”. National Kidney Foundation. Kidney. nd. Web. 14 March 2015. Retrieved from <https://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/aboutckd >
Castner, Debra. (2008). “Kidney Dialysis.” Nursing 2008, 38(9): 45. Print.
Levey, Andrew S. et al. (2005). “Chronic Kidney Disease and Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review.” Kidney International, 67: 2089-2100. Print.
Nahas, Meguid El. (2005). “The global challenge of chronic kidney disease.” Kidney International 68: 2918-2929. Print.
National Kidney Foundation & Rochester General Hospital. (2011). “CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE 2011: From Nutrition to Transplant.” National Kidney Foundation. Print.
Tonelli, Marcello et al. (2006). “Chronic Kidney Disease and Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review.” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 17: 2034-2047. Print.