Essay On Poverty Reduction
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One of the unfortunate facts even in the 21st century is the ugly reality of the excess poverty that one can see globally throughout the nations of the world. As far as technology and science have come, the human race has yet to figure out a method to eradicate the imbalance of socio-economic positions of people everywhere. A seriously large portion of the earth’s population still lives well under the poverty line, depending on the standard that one places to decide what poverty is. Fortunately there have always been people who found the hardships that their fellow humans experience an unjust and concerning problem for the world. Thankfully there have been numerous methods and programs that have been created throughout the years to reduce the level of poverty globally. The following essay examines various research articles on programs that have been used to address the poverty issues in various places of the world. Numerous methods have been tried and the focus of the essay is to examine which, if any, are more effective for future programs to implement in the movement to remove poverty from the planet.
Before getting too deep into the dialogue, one must consider how to measure the standard of poverty. Poverty is not a simply defined phenomenon for the different cultures and countries worldwide. The standard of poverty in the United States may not be considered poverty by African standards. Defining poverty across the board is not easy to attain and is an aspect that needs consideration when developing systems and programs to work on poverty reduction. One possible consideration is to gauge if the basic needs of people are met (Toye, 2007). For example, article writer Toye discusses the dollar-a-day poverty method to possibly help with poverty, but what one US dollar equals in another currency is not necessarily a good measurement to determine the needs people in different regions of the world (Toye, 2007).
Another possibly idea for helping with the poverty issue is suggested in an article written by Eide (2008), which mentions that a human rights-based approach is more likely to help make significant changes in the level of poverty compared to what has typically been suggested and seen to occur thus far. Eide states that the focus of most nations is strictly on economic growth, which leaves out the importance of the commitments that are made for helping the poor. (2008). A sincere interest or concern by the people in power who have the ability to make a difference has not been seen. “The adoption by the United Nations of a human rights-based approach to poverty reduction and development is significant and should be utilized to a maximum” (Eide, 2008).
The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) was implemented to have a plan of action in place to engage governments and key leaders to remain focused on the issues of poverty without dropping it on the list of priorities (Sepulveda, & DeSchutter, 2013). Unfortunately, although the concept and plan were helpful in furthering a proper movement in the direction to gain attention for a the important problems facing the downtrodden, the lack of monitoring and reporting on the plans of agenda caused an oversight and neglect of many of the extremely poor and helpless people (Sepulveda, & DeSchutter, 2013). Luckily the social protection programs that were brought in to assist the various countries showed a reduction in severity of poverty (Sepulveda, & DeSchutter, 2013). An exciting and hopeful statistic shows that the World Bank estimates that the social protection intervention may reduce poverty by about 5-10 percent, which would then prove to be an excellent tool to meet the MDG target 1 of reducing poverty in half by 2015 (Sepulveda, & DeSchutter, 2013). These social protection programs are human rights-based plans that prove to be a huge step forward for the reduction of poverty related ailments, such as lack of food, clothing, shelter, education, and health.
Another possible method that could be beneficial is the initiative to move towards sustainable marketplaces. Instead of offering financial support or other ‘hand-outs’ to the poor, the idea to provide Market Literacy, where skills are taught to help sustain employment that provides income to these individuals was tested in India (Viswanathan, Sridharan, 2009). The method of Market Literacy argues that in any position, if an individual lacks literacy or know-how, then the chances of success in various endeavors becomes limited. By properly educating many of the impoverished and uneducated folks living in poor condition, they become less helpless in taking matters into their own hands and expanding the horizon of opportunities (Viswanathan, Sridharan, 2009). The writers of the article that was used in researching these concepts provide a well-balanced approach of how the changes can benefit so many levels of society, economy, ecology, and other important functions in the marketplace when the empowerment starts with proper skills and educational training.
The next possible useful solution in the reduction of world poverty may be through social transfer programs. These programs involve a multitude of actions that help elevate the poor from their lack of opportunity. Often this lack of opportunity to obtain credit, an education, healthcare, only force the individuals to remain stuck in this low opportunity and low income lifestyle(Scott, 2009).. Allowing the children of these impoverished parents to attend school and rewarding the parents for that choice versus forcing their children into labor to help contribute to the family, the benefits are much larger and long ranging (Scott, 2009). The aim of the social transfer programs is to help elevate the poor through incentivizing options that will engage behaviors that will bring better hope and opportunity to their future generations as well (Scott, 2009). Concerns against social transfers did not prove to be valid, and more benefits are evident in this program than the implied negatives.
The options available that have been tested or are currently in use for the reduction of poverty has neither removed the issue entirely nor has it been useless. Regardless of whether the type of program that one believes works best is the inclusion system or the social transfer system, the fact that any thought and action or in effect is better than remaining resigned on the cause, which will do nothing to remove, minimize, or control poverty. Some of the methods discussed may provide a more efficient and fruitful outcome in the goal to end poverty, which is why those programs are ones to consider using on a larger scale. An area that the citizens of the world can feel hopeful about is the reduction of poverty that has occurred since the onset of the MDGs. There are many other areas that are not fixed and continue to require attention in improving the quality of life for fellow human beings; however the reality that the poverty rate was cut in half in two decades (The Economist, 2013).
Experts are even questioning if it is possible to entirely eradicate the poverty issue you in its entirety within twenty more years, if the current rate continues (The Economist, 2013). The possibility of the lofty goal is actually a likely reality that the world may see. The numbers that are tracked show an ongoing decrease in poverty at about one percent per year, and no slowing down of these figures has been noticed (The Economist, 2013).
In concluding the essay of the appropriate program to implement in the future for the reduction or extermination of poverty is in the hands of the government, economists, corporations, and citizens of the world to embrace it as a human rights-based issue that concerns each and every person on the planet. My final analysis of the information gathered has me believing that the combination of the programs with an emphasis on sustainable development goals that will empower the people. When appropriate knowledge is gained, the individuals have the ability to critically analyze and decide the direction that must be taken to remove themselves from the dissatisfactory condition of living. These individuals will have the ability to understand the way the world works and will be better prepared to become participating members of society who contribute and enjoy the fruits of their labor. Using the social transfer programs to support the educational growth of the children, as well as the health care for the families seem to be a fair plan of action that will work in conjunction with the sustainable development goals as the ideal program for the future of this honorable and necessary goal.
Chandy, C. (2013). ‘A World Free of Extreme Poverty-But by Which Path?’, The Brookings
Eide, A. (2008). Towards a global fight against poverty?. A human rights-based approach would
make a significant difference for the poor.
Scott, J. (2009). ‘Social Transfers and Growth in Poor Countries’, Brooks World Poverty
Sepulveda, M., and DeSchutter, O. (2013). ‘The need to include a human rights-based approach
The Economist (2013). ‘Poverty, growth and the World Bank: A dollar a day’. Retrieved from
The Economist (2013). ‘Poverty: not always with us’. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com
Toye, J. (2007). ‘Poverty Reduction’, Development in Practice, Vol. 17, No. 4/5, pg1-4.
Viswanathan, M., Sridharan, S. (2009). From Subsistence Marketplaces to Sustainable
Marketplaces: A Bottom-Up Perspective on the Role of Business in Poverty Alleviation. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com
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