Example Of Literature Review On Schedule Induced Behavior
According to Overskeid (1992), schedule-induced behavior is a highly unsettled concept and is doubtful in humans. Falk has been first to introduce schedule-induced behavior concept. Literature does not support schedule-induced behavior is reinforced but adjunct to a reinforced behavior and only has reinforcement properties. Further refinements of schedule-induced behavior include a split between what is referred to as "interim" behavior (one explicit in an interval's first part between two reinforcers) and "terminal" behavior (one emerging close to a behavior reinforcer's introduction). One original point of departure to explain schedule-induced behavior is as a displacement activity which is performed as an indifference mechanism in response to two strong, conflicting motives. Anorexia nervosa is, for example, explained by Epling et al. as a reinforced behavior which is correlated to a schedule-induced behavior among rats, i.e. increased rate of treadmill running, leading to death. By analogy, Epling et al. believe human behavior shows similar pattern upon dieting which according to Epling et al., is comparable to an intermittent schedule of food presentation. Alcohol consumption intervention strategies among rats, moreover, are addressed by Falk and Tang as suggestive of similar behaviors – by consuming ethanol – among humans. Interpretations of Falk, Epling et al. and Falk and Tang all lack an empirical basis for human behavior. By studying aggression, Looney and Cohen show schedule-induced behavior is hardly evidenced in humans but, upon empirical research, show an extinction-induced aggression behavior, meaning subjects move from experiences of reinforced behaviors to ones of no consequences, unlike schedule-induced behavior in which interest is fundamentally in behavior induced by an intermittent schedule. Schedule-induced behavior is reported in many species, particularly rats, and is still hard to establish for humans. Methodologically, baseline schedule has been shown flawed, which further adds more doubts to consistent expression of schedule-induced behavior in animals as well. Applied baselines – such as maze problems, a drinking model and funny tapes – hardly justify a schedule-induced behavior in humans since different behaviors are also possible using intermittent schedules compared to applied baselines.
Conversely, Falk (1994) shows criticized literature is, in fact, a demonstration of schedule-induced behavior in humans. One major criticism to lack of schedule-induced behavior in humans is overlooking schedule-induced behavior's excessive character. As well, adjunctive behavior cannot be distinctively be marked, as is suggested by first view, as having reinforcing properties since many behaviors show same properties. Instead, adjunctive behavior is a "behavior maintained at high probability by stimuli whose reinforcing properties in the situation are derived primarily as a function of schedule parameters governing the availability of another class of reinforcers." Contrary to classic view, adjunctive behavior is not a cathartic one but a behavior decided by environmental context and controlled by such environment's stimuli. The first view misinterprets ethanol overindulgence – as an alcohol consumption intervention – as equally applicable in both cases of rats and humans. Human subject experiments remain valid in spite of limitations compared to animal subject experiments. Baseline schedule by first view is misrepresented. Repeatedly, schedule-induced behavior is expressed at extreme conditions in human experiments, which is consistent with schedule-induced behavior's extreme nature. The first view overlooks positive-result studies which clearly demonstrate schedule-induced behavior. Given limitations of any study, a representative design is required for a fuller characterization of a behavioral pattern, particularly schedule-induced behavior. One problematic about schedule-induced behavior is not being developed according to a specific, noticeable physiological response. Given psychology's long history of hidden powers, innateness, self operation, subjectivity, primacy of internal causation, humans' coming under schedule control, or are innately insensitive, too complex, or combative with respect to such control, is insupportable.
Falk, J. L. (1994). Schedule-induced behavior occurs in humans: A reply to Overskeid. The Psychological Record, 1, 45-62. Retrieved from http://thepsychologicalrecord.siu.edu/44%20Falk%20Abstract.pdf
Overskeid, G. (1992). Is any human behavior schedule-induced? The Psychology Record, 3, 323-340. Retrieved from http://thepsychologicalrecord.siu.edu/42%20Overskied%20Abstract.pdf