Obesity And Diabetes Research Papers Example

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Obesity, Diabetes, Health, Social Issues, Aliens, Risk, People, Life

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/11/29


Obesity is considered to be a scourge of the 21st century whose prevalence keeps increasing significantly, comprising a major public health concern. Physiologically, obesity is defined as “an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that involves a risk to health” (Pedro et al. 2011). The most practical indicator to evaluate obesity in adults is the Body Mass Index (BMI) and based on it, those with BMI that is higher than 30 are considered obese (WHO, 2015). According to the World Health Organization (2015), there were more than two billion overweight adults and 600 million obese adults, in 2014, which means that 39 percent of the world’s adult population was overweight and 13 percent was obese, in 2014. The overall prevalence of obesity worldwide has doubled in the last 30 years (WHO, 2015). Obesity and overweight are both linked to more deaths across the globe compared to the deaths associated to underweight. Obesity is estimated to be the sixth most important risk factor causative to the overall global disease (Ezzati et al., 2002). Unquestionably, obesity is a serious health issue that has detrimental side effects that may even lead to premature death. Among the serious and life-threatening consequences of obesity is diabetes, and the primary focus of this paper is in determining the relation between obesity and diabetes, as well as ways to prevent diabetes and related health issues.

Obesity, Diabetes, and Life Expectancy

It has been evidenced that obesity leads to diabetes. Being obese increases the risk of developing insulin and leptin resistance and a dysfunctional adipose tissue (Pedro et al., 2011). The conditions above lead to diabetes with all deriving risks, such as cardiovascular disease and hypertension if left untreated. According to research, blood pressure increases with BMI; hence, obese people are at higher risk to develop hypertension, which, combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus, raise the risk of cardiovascular disease dramatically (Pedro et al., 2011). It is believed that stroke and heart disease were the leading causes of death, in 2012 (WHO, 2015). Furthermore, fat accumulation in the abdominal is also associated with insulin resistance and glucose impairment, which are both prediabetic conditions (Pedro et al., 2011).
A new computer modelling study published in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, suggests that life expectancy of obese people with diabetes can be reduced by up to eight years while an adult’s healthy years can be shortened by 19 years due to effects related to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Grover et al., 2014). The study also found that people that were obese from an early age and also had diabetes were more prone to significant life expectancy reduction. In detail, when researchers compared men aged between 20 and 39 years old, it was apparent that severely obese adults lost eight years of life, on average. Obese women with type 2 diabetes were found to lose six years of their life due to their obesity (Grover et al. 2014). In addition, those that had developed obesity after their forties lost about half the years of those that were obese at an earlier age. Professor S. Grover said: “The pattern is clear. The more an individual weighs and the younger their age, the greater the effect on their health, as they have many years ahead of them during which the increased health risks associated with obesity can negatively impact their lives.” (Grover et al., 2014). The professor continues and mentions that even though type 2 diabetes could also be related to genetics, obese people are 80 times more likely to develop the disease.

How to Treat Obesity and Prevent/Manage Diabetes

Responsibility on an Individual level
Obesity can be treated through various ways that can help lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Primarily, obesity is treated with lifestyle changes and proper dieting. The modern lifestyle urges people to consume more unhealthy outdoor foods, and reduce the daily activity one engages into, which both affect obesity prevalence (WHO, 2015). Therefore, the decrease in the quality of life is a significant factor that affects obesity and, in consequence, type 2 diabetes. Obesity is largely preventable though. The World Health Organization advises people to reduce their energy intake from sugars and fats, eat more vegetables, fruit, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, and adopt a lifestyle that involves regular physical activity. It is important people make healthier choices in regards what they eat. It has been evidenced that moderate-intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, for 30 minutes can reduce the risk of diabetes by more than 40 percent (Colberg et al., 2010). Aerobic training has also been prescribed for type 2 diabetes management and, of course, prevention. Even one week of aerobic exercise can improve an obese patient’s overall insulin sensitivity to a certain degree (Colberg et al., 2010). Resistance exercise training is also perceived to have beneficial results in preventing or lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes among obese people. A randomized controlled trial has shown that resistance training twice a week for four months by persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes resulted in almost 50 percent decrease in insulin resistance and considerable loss of visceral fat (Colberg et al. 2010). Finally, obesity can also be treated via bariatric surgery and medication, in more extreme cases (Grover et al., 2015).

Responsibility at a Societal Level

That said; individual responsibility can have significant results only if people have access to a healthy lifestyle (WHO, 2015). Therefore, besides the individual level, societies also have their share of responsibility in helping obese people adopt healthier lifestyles that will keep them away from health risks related to obesity, type 2 diabetes included. In order to accomplish that both private and public stakeholders have to collaborate and make healthier dietary choices and regular physical activity not only available, but also easily accessible and affordable to all (WHO, 2015). That aside, the food industry can promote healthy diets by reducing the salt, sugar, and fat they use to make processed foods, make healthy choices affordable to all consumers, and promote/support the practice of regular physical activity in the workplace (WHO, 2015).


Obesity is the beginning of numerous life-threatening health conditions that people suffer from, such as diabetes and affects millions of people worldwide. Individuals with diabetes, have increased risks of heart disease, which is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Combined with obesity, type 2 diabetes can seriously affect people’s quality of life and reduce their life expectancy by up to eight years while also reducing one’s healthy years by more than fifteen. It has also been apparent that the younger one becomes obese, the more they risk developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, with all known side effects. Good news is that obesity is preventable. An obese person can change their lifestyle and adopt healthier dietary choices that will help reduce their weight and prevent the development of diabetes. Regular exercise also plays a vital role in losing weight and increase the body’s insulin production, even if that means 30 minutes of brisk walking.


Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ (2002). Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet, 360(9343):1347-1360. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11403-6.
Grover, S. et al. (2015). Years of life lost and healthy life-years lost from diabetes and cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese people: a modelling study. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Volume 3, No. 2, p114–122, February 2015. Retrieved Feb. 27, 2015 from: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587%2814%2970229-3/fulltext
Colberg. S. (2010). Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, December 2010 vol. 33 no. 12 e147-e167. doi: 10.2337/dc10-9990. Retrieved Feb. 27, 2015 from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/12/e147.full
Pedro, L. et al. (2011). Role of obesity-associated dysfunctional adipose tissue in cancer: A molecular nutrition approach. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Bioenergetics, Volume 1807, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 664–678. Retrieved Feb. 27, 2015 from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005272810007620
WHO (2015). Obesity and overweight: Fact sheet N°311. Retrieved Feb. 27, 2015 from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/

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Obesity And Diabetes Research Papers Example. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/obesity-and-diabetes-research-papers-example/. Published Nov 29, 2020. Accessed March 26, 2023.

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