Example Of Research Paper On History, Causes And Symptoms Of Actute And Chronic Bronchitis

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Bronchitis, Medicine, Disease, Health, Antibiotics, Acute, Treatment, Vaccination

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/12/30

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Abstract 2

Introduction 3
Literature review 4
History 4
Symtoms and Causes 5
Discussion 5
Summary 6
Conclusion 6

References 7

Abstract
Bronchitis is a disease that impacts the lower respiratory organs causing accumulation of mucus in the bronchial passages. The disease can be acute or chronic according to the extent of its persistence in a patient. This paper does a review of the literature on the chronic disease. It is found that the first instance of the disease identification occurred in 1931 in chickens where the disease impacted the nasal passages of the chickens. The impact and devastation of the disease have been found to be highest in Britain and was termed as the “British Disease”. Bronchitis causes development of mucus lining and inflammation inside the bronchial tubes and an accumulation of mucus in the lungs. Primary symptoms of bronchitis include coughing, mucus, breathlessness, chest pain and mild fever. The causes of bronchitis are mainly viral particles of flu however exposure to irritants like dust, fumes, and smoking are also a major cause of chronic bronchitis. Although main treatment of the disease consists of antibiotics prescription, however, it has been found that these medicines have a marginal impact, so medical practitioners are also prescribing alternative therapies.
Introduction
Bronchitis is a pulmonary disease that results in the accumulation of mucus in the bronchial passages. It causes inflammation and constrictions in the bronchial tubes. It causes a cough that results in breathlessness, wheezing, tightness and chest pain. The disease is categorized according to the history and the intensity of the symptoms (Fletcher & Peto, 1977).
Acute Bronchitis: If the symptoms persist for seven to fourteen days.
Chronic Bronchitis: If the symptoms and disease last for at least three months and extending up to two years (Sethi, 1999).
Acute bronchitis is a viral infection that impacts the lower respiratory tracts. With a proper treatment, the infection is removed, and lungs return to normal. Chronic bronchitis is a critical long-term respiratory disorder that requires appropriate primary care and medication. Chronic bronchitis belongs to a condition that is known as a progressive lung disorder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Sethi, 1999).
Literature review
History
The first instance of identification of a new respiratory disease was done in 1931 and was known to exist in the chickens. The mortality rate was high and findings revealed mucus in bronchi, trachea and sometimes in the nasal passages. The disease was identified as infectious and prone to be carried by other healthy chicks. The early researchers described the disease as Infectious Bronchitis (IB). Practical and commercial vaccination methods were developed at that time. However, the advent of the broiler industry changed the scene for IB control and added to the infection growth (Fabricant, 1998).
Chronic Bronchitis used to be referred as the "British Disease", because of its history of death and disability in Britain. Although there has been a decline in the deaths due to Bronchitis in the past decade, even then the disease contributes to large mortality rates across USA and UK. The number of certified deaths due to COPD in England and Wales were 25000 in the year of 1974. A committee of Medical Research Council in the year of 1960 studied the impact of smoking on obstruction and respiratory diseases. The committee found smoking to play a major role in respiratory disorders (Fletcher & Peto, 1977).
Symptoms and Causes
Small passages of lungs or bronchial tubes trap dirt, dust or foreign particles from the inhaled air. The thin mucus lining inside these bronchial tubes get inflamed and starts overproduction of mucus. Coughing is a reflex that clears the accumulated mucus from the lungs. Coughing is a primary symptom of bronchitis. Persistent cough with mucus, breathlessness, wheezing and chest pain with mild fever are the clinical manifestations for bronchitis. The viral particles causing seasonal cold and flu are the common cause of acute bronchitis. These viruses are transmitted via air particles, physical contact or not-hygienic habits (Fabricant, 1998).
Acute bronchitis is caused by several bacteria and viruses. For bacterial bronchitis, antibiotic medication is prescribed. The other inducing factors for bronchitis are dust particles, fumes, pollution and smoking (Sethi, 1999). Chronic bronchitis is a result of repetitive damage to the lungs induced by smoking or other forms of irritants. With asthmatic conditions an incidence of bronchitis results in asthmatic bronchitis. Asthma is an inflammatory condition that leads the contraction in airways muscles with bronchial swelling (Dunnill, Massarella & Anderson, 1969).
Discussion
The study of the anatomy of bronchi has been studies in many deaths that occurred due chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The study observed the percentage of mucus glands amongst the subjects. It was observed that for all the cases of bronchitis the mucus value was higher than normal in case of chronic bronchitis while in the bronchi in emphysema the value of mucus was less than normal range. In the year of 1960 a quantitative measure of chronic bronchitis was performed, and a measuring ratio was termed as the Reid Index (Reid, 1960). The Reid Index quantified the thickness of mucus glands that appear between bronchial cartilage and basement membrane (Dunnill, Massarella & Anderson, 1969). It is observed that in cases of clinical patients with chronic bronchitis the volume of mucus is distinctly different than those of normal patients (Dunnill, Massarella & Anderson, 1969).
Major histological findings in chronic bronchitis patients are hypertrophy and hyperplasia in mucus glands. The most common bacteria involved in chronic bronchitis are Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is based on clinical impressions, and gram stains test performed on sputum specimen. The selection of antibiotic must consider the patient comorbidities such as resistance issues and pathogen (Sethi, 1999). An analytical study suggests that the antibiotics are the predominant treatment in the primary management of the infection (Mainous, Zoorob & Hueston, 1996). Increasing development of resistant mutants against antibiotic is common amongst respiratory pathogens, so practitioners prescribe combination therapies or fluoroquinolones as a first-line treatment (Sethi, 1999).
Summary
Bronchitis is a lower respiratory disorder that results in inflammation and irritation of bronchial tubes. This occurrence of this disease starts producing mucus. The common symptoms of bronchitis are breathlessness, phlegm production, wheezing, mild fever discomfort and tightness in the chest. On the basis of duration of symptoms, bronchitis is categorized into two types, acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is short lived while chronic bronchitis persists from 2 to 3 months to years. Historical evidences show that the appearance of bronchitis was first witnessed in chickens. The advent of the commercial industry for manufacturing and growth of chickens added a new dimension to the growth of this diseases. Initially Britain had been one of the major sufferers of the outbreak of this disease.The main causes of bronchitis include hereditary conditions as well as external and seasonal conditions, such as smoke, dust particles. Chronic bronchitis mostly impacts men but due to increasing smoking habits among women the condition perception has changed. Now women are similarly influenced by bronchitis. For acute bronchitis intake of fluids should be increased, and mild treatment similar to flu is sufficient. Medical practitioners prescribe antibiotics according to the severity of symptoms. For chronic conditions, a proper medication is required. Some of the medicines available are Amoxicillin (Penicillin), Azithromycin and Moxifloxacin(Quinolone). Investigations into chronic bronchitis and emphysema reveal that Reid index increase along with the intensity and severity of emphysema and bronchitis. COPD is the foremost cause of deaths worldwide. Patients experience severe respiratory problems and a decline in the lung functions. Patients suffering from chronic bronchitis experience as much as two exacerbations in a year. The treatment for even one exacerbation is costly and makes up to fifty percent of the total cost of COPD treatment. The treatment consists of antibiotic and oral corticosteroids and hospitalization in severe cases. Alternative therapies like bronchodilators, smoking cessation, and influenza immunization are also prescribed along with hospitalization. The use of alternate therapies is becoming common as clinical studies suggest marginal benefits from antibiotics.
References
Dunnill, M. S., Massarella, G. R., & Anderson, J. A. (1969). A comparison of the quantitative
anatomy of the bronchi in normal subjects, in status asthmaticus, in chronic bronchitis,
and in emphysema. Thorax, 24(2), 176-179.
Fletcher, C., & Peto, R. (1977). The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction. Bmj,
1(6077), 1645-1648.
Fabricant, J. (1998). The early history of infectious bronchitis. Avian diseases, 648-650.
James, G. D., Petersen, I., Nazareth, I., Wedzicha, J. A., & Donaldson, G. C. (2013). Use of
long-term antibiotic treatment in COPD patients in the UK: a retrospective cohort study.
Prim Care Respir J, 22(3), 271-7.
Mainous 3rd, A. G., Zoorob, R. J., & Hueston, W. J. (1996). Current management of acute
bronchitis in ambulatory care: the use of antibiotics and bronchodilators. Archives of
family medicine, 5(2), 79-83.
Reid, L. (1960). Measurement of the bronchial mucous gland layer: a diagnostic yardstick in
chronic bronchitis. Thorax, 15(2), 132-141.
Sethi, S. (1999). Infectious exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: diagnosis and management.

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