Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Jaguar, Management, Development, Time, Production, Factory, Manufacturing, Manufacture

Pages: 10

Words: 2750

Published: 2020/10/01

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Executive Summary

This report aims the way in which Jaguar; the world's most respected manufacturers of car. It has multiple processes of Lean manufacturing. It underpins the success of the Jaguar production methods. Jaguar is an entity of Ford group. It has put in a lot of time and efforts in improving its production methods, particularly, from the Japanese industry. It includes lean manufacturing. It integrates with Jaguar's factory. The skillful implementation of Lean Management is helping Jaguar manufacturing optimum and cost-efficient. It is the process that is helping Jaguar to guarantee quality and increase efficiency. It has a standard of work process to waste management also. It has the best operational methods at any particular time and continuously improves every part. Every process has continuous monitoring process and improvement. (Word Count – 140)

Introduction

Jaguar exists from 1922.Shigeo Shingo (2005) from Toyota says, “We have to grasp not only the Know-How but also ‘Know Why'”, if we want to master the Toyota Production System.”(Shigeo Shingo, 2005)Toyota,with the above ideology becomes a symbol of status. The production started in 1963 and has given over six million vehicles. The number of employees is thirteen thousand. Jaguar also has experienced its share of downturn and difficulties that range from competition and emerging companies. The peak is the thirteen thousand employees produced two hundred thousand cars per annum in the 1980s. Jaguar management has its basis on three pillars quality, culture, and excellence. It also has a seven-point value system namely: customer focus, teamwork, adaptability, quality, flexibility, respect and open communication. These pillars form the fulcrum of lean management case study. Lean management is the systematic abolition of wastage from all phases of organization functions. (Abenathy,1928, 1) Throughout the globe, there are multiple companies that are implementing the lean principles, and the rate of lean principles adoption is accelerating. Jaguar implements lean principles to reduce production, to amplify customer responsiveness, for product quality and reduction are raw materials. The above contribute to competitiveness and profits. Lean production leads to a cultural and operational environment that is very conducive towards minimization of waste and the prevention of pollution. It effectively enhances the total productivity besides increasing market share and improving the speed-to-market approach with similar new products. Also, it reduces the labour costs of manufacturing and engineering by removing the operations that are non-value-added. Lean manufacturing study helped us to analyse the factors to set the goals. Benefits by using the Lean time and money has resulted in reasonable cuts and have let the company expansion for greater coverage of the region. It eliminates the time required for accomplishing few tasks and therefore adding greater responsibilities. (Burnes, 2004, 6)

Part A

Operations Management
It involves a big transformation of Jaguar between the points of time. The major aspect of change comes from comparing Jaguar from the point it started to the present time. On this basis, the major transformations comprise of the changes that involve any parts of structure, content involving radical shifts in the manufacturing process. The second dimension of Jaguar's Lean change is the way the transformation happens, these factors involve a large focus and huge processing with resistance. Examination of these factors involves a focus on the phases. They are independent of the content and are interactive in Jaguar Company. (Baum, 1994,4) The reasons for the change come from internal and external factors. Jaguar recognizes that attempts to a major organizational change like Lean management lead to transformation other than the ones intended. Some changes happen unintentionally as a result of outcomes of other decisions and actions in Jaguar. Sometimes the change is needed to save the reputation of the brand.Organizations like Jaguar continuously change over time in its life cycle. It metaphors for the development. Lean management poses that the organization grows and develops with structural reforms shift to a new control systems. According to Tim O’Reilly,CEO, O’Reilly Media(2005), “The Lean Startup isn’t just about how to create a more successful entrepreneurial business; it’s about what we can learn from those businesses to improve virtually everything we do. The Lean Startup principles applied to government programs, to health care, and to solving the world’s great problems. It’s ultimately an answer to the question How to learn more quickly what works and discard what doesn’t.”(Reilly, 2005)It helps to gain optimum outputs from the processes and the results. (Barnett,1995, 3)

Image: Jaguar Operations Management

Image Source: Lean Work Book
The above figure shows how Lean management principles help in the organizational change. The steps that the company follows are:
It establishes the visions, missions, and strategy analysis. IT formulates the needs and plans accordingly.
Jaguar then communicates goals to its staff. It also establishes performance parameters.

It sets targets and aligns its resources so that there are a roadmap and milestones for strategic initiatives.

It gets feedback periodically and performs audit; plan reviews from time to time. This process continues in the manufacturing process.
The Lean Event Facilitator in the Lean Enterprise Forum at the University of Tennessee Ernie Smith(2014) says “Kanban is like the milkman. That is the essence of a pull system.” (Smith, 2014)This type of management is helping Jaguar to attribute the age of organization's age and size along with attending the process of change. The maximum development that encourages this in Jaguar is that how the firms tend to become inert with the time and the structures become so strongly rooted that it becomes difficult to change. Further argument tells that it is possible that the organizations change due to the bureaucratic structure of the size that accompanies the size. (Aldrich, 2006, 2) Jaguar's organizational responsibility changed in the summer of 2000. There was a supply change, which became capable of supporting the lean manufacturing process. Jaguar uses lean principles like just in time to make sure that the materials receive and their requirements in right quantities. (Crainer, 1995, 8)
Steve Blank, lecturer, Stanford University, UC Berkeley Hass Business Schoolsays, “The roadmap for innovation for the twenty-first century is the ideas in The Lean Startup will help create the next industrial revolution”. This idea encourages minimum level of inventory in Jaguar.(Blank, 2001). Minimum time for inventory and less lead-time are the major factors in the Lean management process of Jaguar. It also associates with improved quality and immediate responses to change. Lean management in Jaguar required a collection of materials from the suppliers. They are given to the point of requirement in the assembly where they are in the discipline and have low-cost processes. Jaguar operations include the following elements:

Change in structure

Good personal and staff relations
Plant Management
Culture Development
Communication Channels
Leadership and Management Style
Once Jaguar took the charge of implementing such Lean principles in the company there was no stop. It comprises of the best human resources put into effect for selection of the best personnel for Jaguar. According to Konusuke Matsushita (1995), “One cannot do anything because your failure is an internal disease. The companies are based on Taylor’s principles. Worse, your heads are Taylorized too. You firmly believe that sound management means executives on the one side and workers on the other, on the one side men who think and on the other side men who only work.” (Matsushita,1995)This approach,besides Lean management, people theory is also majorly used in Jaguar company. Lean management allows the hierarchy to execute in Jaguar. Specific people are in the appropriate position to steer the functions through meeting the objectives. Lean management in Jaguar consists of specialization and division of labor in operations. Different people have come together to develop the new Jaguar face. Lean management requires division of laborand specialized attention. The activities coordinate. It needs a definite structure in the organization. The people must know their activities and where they fit in the organization and result product as a whole. The responsibilities and the answerabilities of the members have a specific definition that the members must adhere to strictly. Structure in Jaguar helps in such delegation. The entire management of Jaguar is thus, a lean management. Throughout the globe, there are multiple companies that are implementing the lean principles, and the rate of lean principles adoption is accelerating. Jaguar implements lean principles to reduce production, to amplify customer responsiveness, for product quality and reduction are raw materials. The above contribute to competitiveness and profits. The operations are a flat structure that is more flexible and thus makes it lean, flexible and able to cope up with the external industrial environment. The operations are not central and were thus, multi visional. It has plans for sustainability and growth.(Druker, 1995, 9)
Shigeo Shingo (2005) says“Improvement usually means doing something that we have never done before.” (Shingo, 2005) Jaguar has three manufacturing facilities that are very advanced. It also is investing more than five hundred million Euros in UK for another Lean facility for manufacturing.(Crainer, 1995, 8)

Process Management

Image: Lean Process Management in Jaguar
Image Source: Lean Work Book
David Hudson, who handles the operations in plants, leads the process operation in Jaguar. He developed the present structural team of Jaguar. It changed the fortunes of Jaguar. Jaguar now tops in a record time of three years. The Jaguar process management divides into specific departments. (Continuous Monitoring, 2014, 7) These are:

Personnel

Manufacturing
Controller
Transition
Corporate Affairs
Quality Operating System
Plant quality
Time Management
The third batch consists of Press shop, Trim, Paint Shop and M & L. They are interdependent departments and cannot function without each other. The head of departments ensured that all these departments were at competitive best. Jaguar has set up a logistics vision for lean supply management. It works with few suppliers. It sources the parts from suppliers within a hundred mile radius. These suppliers are responsible for the supply of huge systems like seats, instrument panels, etc. They require the assembly facility to establish in the adjacent supplier park. This process helps in lean inbound supply and facilities. The delivery has its basis on the pull system. It has a sequence that is just in time and line-side. The replenishment time is two hours for the inventory. As per Gerhard Plenert and Bill Kirchmier (2000), “Finite Capacity Scheduling: Management, Selection, and Implementation.If you do what you always did, you get what you always got.” (business2community.com)
The delivery on the requirement basis is on a real time method. Jaguar uses returnable stillage. It pays the production on the receipt of supplies. There is a delivery on a daily basis. It helps to coordinate with the two-hour inventory. The supplies coordinate with intelligent collection and having a third party partner in logistics. Internationally, Jaguar has a 21 days lead-time. Each supply is on stillages that are returnable. Smart cards help in achieving about 80 percent of the parts. The supplier is responsible for delivering the inside inventory to the places it delivers. This approach helps to achieve the parts with sixty-seven percent more efficiently. The parts will have daily deliveries, as much as possible. There is a maximum of three-day supply in the parts warehouse and no disposable board in the packing line side. (Forney, 2014, 10)

Image: Customer Feedback in Lean Management of Jaguar

Image Source: Lean Work Book
The important feature of Jaguar's Lean logistics is the system for an intelligent Collection System. It is the procurement of materials in exact measurements. The procurement is on the basis of shifts from the suppliers. They deliver it to the plant within half an hour. They have a basis on forecast of orders and orders in wait.. There is a master schedule. The master schedule plans for eight to fifteen days of the Jaguar's issued schedules. The service provider of logistics operates in the firm schedules in manifest form from suppliers to plant and puts in the pick-up sheets for the truck drivers. It serves the authorization for the supplier to deliver parts to the driver. It serves as an authority for the supply to give the materials to the driver. The driver checks the manifest and collects the materials that have a mention in the document.
Noam Wasserman (2011) who is a professor in Harvard Business School comments, “The Lean Startup is a foundational must-read for founders, enabling them to reduce product failures by bringing structure and science to what is usually informal and an art. It provides actionable ways to avoid product-learning mistakes, rigorously evaluate early signals from the market through validated learning, and decide whether to persevere or to pivot, all challenges that heighten the chance of entrepreneurial failure.” (Wasserman, 2011) Excess materials are not in the collection process and only fixed quantities enter the truck. In the case there is extra need, the driver must take the permission of a logistics partner. This process thus makes the driver also an integral part of the whole process system. It also replaces the need of an expediter in the process of logistics. Giving this responsibility to the drivers helps Jaguar to get information about the excess or shortage of the supplies. (French,1984, 11)
The company has six day's advance information from the supplier side. It helps Jaguar to control a lot of instability and helps to curb the chasing and finding resources at the last minute. Jaguar, thus, takes complete responsibility to deliver the correct cars at the right time. The dealers have complete access to monitor their orders from the manufacturing phase onwards. They can electronically track them if necessary, for example, in case of lead-time more than fifteen days. Jaguar builds cars for customer orders only.(Johnson, 2014, 17)
Initially, there were almost 100 workers that were responsible for internal logistics and assembly. They were also responsible for warehouse, material procurement, line feeding, etc. Workers are responsible for these used to get more pay in comparison to the operators in the production. This process changed after inclusion of Lean management. The new process prohibited the Jaguar employees to touch any parts of the cars used in the assembly line. The internal logistics is outsourced to the UCI. The service provider of logistics helps in managing the inbound materials. (Hannan, 1984, 12)
The system of not touching the parts reduced the number of workers from ninety-five to six. The key idea here is to integrate the knowledge and the experience of production in high volumes among the workers in Jaguar in quality monitoring operations. Both elements are necessary for the success of Jaguar. Jaguar lines the culture and values with its operation processes. Jaguar implements the strategy to get the most efficient outcomes from the inputs. The three tier strategy for Jaguar consists of; first; making the quality of the organization focus on customers. Initially, Jaguar had cost as it priority. After implementation of Lean management, quality became the top priority for Jaguar. Customer focus and productivity follows quality. The emphasis of the two approaches is entirely different. The quality approach is more responsibility oriented. This approach makes quality everyone's top priority. While producing cars, Jaguar made sure that there were quality process sheets. It allows the workers to document and keep a record of the cars even in high level of production. At the same time, it enables every worker to understand the working process of Jaguar manufacturing. (Druker, 1995, 9)
Bill Hanover, CCO, TPS (Through Put Solutions) in 2001 comments, “No single seminar, classroom experience, or “colored belt” will provide bottom-line Lean results.  Lean happens at the processwith your people, trained and motivated, fully engaged in the hot pursuit of excellence, as they follow your lead and learn to share and support your Lean Vision.” (Hanover,2001)The above vision helps to make the process sustainable. The well known lean manufacturing practices implement in these phases, and it invites workers from other areas and see them in the work. Once accustomed with Lean principles, the worker can implement them in his processes in a way that they are comfortable. It develops freedom, mutual respect and an attitude of trust. . The well known lean manufacturing practices implement in these phases, and it invites workers from other areas and see them in the work. Once accustomed with Lean principles, the worker can implement them in his processes in a way that they are comfortable. It develops freedom, mutual respect and an attitude of trust. (Instead, 2012, 15) It also helps in shared focus with a whole heart commitment from everyone so that they move ahead in implementation of these principles. It also helps in shared focus with a whole heart commitment from everyone so that they move ahead in implementation of these principles. The change is sustainable and has a culture change program. It introduces change in behavior and values of workers in the manufacturing plant. It begins from the top-level management and continues to convey on every layer of the workforce. It is a continuous process.
As per Eliyahu M. Goldratt, The Goal (2002), “One has to make the bottlenecks work only on what will contribute to throughput today, not nine months from now. That’s one way to increase capacity at the bottlenecks. The other way you increase bottleneck capacity is to take some of the load off the bottlenecks and give it to non-bottlenecks”. (Goldratt, 2002)Jaguar is an example of an optimum implementation of the above Lean production system in its operation. It is discussed in a further section in detail. Jaguar now competes globally. It retains its quality control and drives down the costs. Establishment of the lean strategy with the help of consultants helps in a streamlined production. It helps in reshaping the workshops so that there are no large quantities of materials just lying around. It minimizes the clutter and maximizes the movement area increasing the efficiency. It also helps in the "just-in-time" approach making manufacturing process of Jaguar cars more efficient. Such management plays a huge role in the shop floor. It ensures that the workers have knowledge of the requirements of the manufacturing strategy. It also makes sure that there are additional spare parts available whenever they are in need. Lean Manufacturing is also "Toyota System". It is because Toyota Company has the credit for the approach innovation. Lean helps in evolution of very significant technique reducing cost and time. It applies a methodology of "why". These include, why the activity is in the process, and why does the particular response comes. It supports to achieve to the foundation of the problem. Identifying the root issue helps in effective redesign. Jaguar then identifies the two kinds of activities. Vale adding activities and non value adding activities in the processes. It then eliminates the non value adding activities. Enthusiastic involvement of the workers in this approach helps in improving work patterns. The visible consequences are quality and efficiency.(Burnes, 2004, 6)

Lean Management at Jaguar

TaiichiOhno (1999) comments,“To make the work easier and more interesting so that people do not have to sweat?  The Toyota style is not to create results by working hard. It is a system that says there is no limit to people’s creativity.  People don’t go to Toyota to ‘work’ they go there to ‘think’.” (Ohno, 1999) Jaguar retains its quality control and drives down the costs. Establishment of the lean strategy with the help of consultants helps in a streamlined production. It helps in reshaping the workshops so that there are no large quantities of materials just lying around. It minimizes the clutter and maximizes the movement area increasing the efficiency. Lean management begins with asking the workers to work in small teams for small work tasks. It is called "Cellular Working." The teams or "cells" use approaches or "tools" helping them to work more efficiently. Teams get training in work areas itself, instead of classrooms so that they also see the application of the new tools in their work processes. It also helps to make them feel comfortable. The below figure shows an increase after implementing Lean management in Jaguar:

Image: Lean Management in different section in Jaguar

Image Source: Lean Work Book

For creating and implementing the process of change in Jaguar, the management worked with the consultants from RWD Technology.

As suggested byEliyahu M. Goldratt in The Goal. (1998), “An hour lost at a bottleneck is an hour out of the entire system. An hour saved at a non-bottleneck is worthless. Bottlenecks govern both throughput and inventory.”(Goldratt, 1998)It created an environment of continuous ongoing change in work climate. Jaguar, even before lean management had an established quality standard. The international reputation of Jaguar has its basis on these quality standards. But it is also important to come up and implement new and transforming patterns in working methods and assembly relationships. (House of Commons, 2007, 14) The process changes the hierarchical structure to a leader working with small teams. The team changes from thirty members to seven members. The members take up a "helping" role. The four features that Lean Management in Jaguar characterizes is:

Specification of all works in relation to sequence, outcome, time and content.

Direct connection of supplier and customer: There will be no ambiguous "yes" or "no" messages to the customer.
Simple and direct path between the service and product.
Improvement must be scientific and under expert guidance.
Lean Management in Jaguar changed the fact that only team leader has to make a decision.(Forney, 2014, 10)
It makes every team member responsible and hence, inverts the decision-making process. The below figure shows Relative scores of departments post Lean Management Implementation. It is visible that Lean business management and strategy gives the highest score in comparison with other strategies in Jaguar.

Image: Relative scores of departments post Lean Management Implementation

Image Source: Lean Work Book
Toyota Motor Corporation, Fujio Cho, President( 2006) recommends that “Many good American companies have respect for individuals, and practice Kaizen and other TPS {Toyota Production System} tools.  But what is important is having all of the elements together as a system.  It must be practiced every day in a very consistent manner–not in spurts–in a concrete way on the shop floor.” (Cho, 2006)Jaguar implements Lean management like above in the following ways in its firm:
Kaizen Process of Rapid Improvement: It involves continuous improvement. Application of small and increasing changes help significant improvements in the long run. It focuses in the involvement of people from different departments and levels in Jaguar to address the issue in different processes. Techniques like Value Stream Mapping to help identification of opportunities to curb waste in the target level of processes. (Internet Freedom, 2014, 16)
5S: Jaguar implements 5S system in Lean Management for waste reduction and productivity optimization through maintenance of orderly work environment. Jaguar uses visual hints for consistency in process results. 5S comes from the idea that in the usual routine work of Jaguar maintaining orderliness is necessary. It helps in an efficient and smooth flow. The five pillars are the "5S." These are Sorting, Setting in order, Shining, Standardization and Sustainability. (Abenathy,1928, 1)
The 5S in Jaguar helps in the improvement of the physical environment for the workers and guides them for waste reduction, delay reduction and processing inventory. 5S Lean management in Jaguar helps in huge reductions of space requirements for the ongoing operations. It also results in tools and materials in having labels and storage locations with color codes.(French,1984, 11)
Total Productive Maintenance or TPM: Jaguar, with this Lean principle, engages multiple levels and tasks so that there is the maximization of the general effectiveness from the production equipment. It also helps Jaguar in elevating the equipments and processes for reduction of mistakes and accidents. It is contrary to the traditional approach where only maintenance departments have responsibility of the prevention measures. Jaguar, with this approach, seeks the involvement of workers from all the departments, even the senior executive officers. The goal of Jaguar with TPM is termination of all the loss, breakdowns and losses in adjustment and setting up of equipment. It also includes elimination of minor stops, speed reduction, reworks, defects, spills, start-up losses and yield losses. The below figure adds to the information on Lean management in Jaguar. (Kimberly, 1980, 18) As given by M. Michael Umble and Mokshagundam L. Srikanth. Synchronous Management: Profit-Based Manufacturing for the 21st Century. Spectrum Publishing: 1997, “Due to the set-up times, the tendency is to produce in batches that are larger than the order quantities. This supposedly utilizes the equipment more efficiently, reduces set-up costs, and reduces unit product cost. But any production in excess of immediate market demand ends up as finished-goods inventory. The result of producing these large batches in today’s competitive marketplace is poor customer service despite high levels of inventory.” (Umble and Srikanth, 1997)

Image: Jaguar Lean Management

Image Source: Lean Work Book
Cellular Management: It is also referred to as "One Piece Flow System". Jaguar puts the workstations and achiness in an arrangement so that there is product aligned sequence. It enables and efficient material and component flow. Cellular management in Jaguar takes minimum transportation and hence, results in minimum delay. It results in a major shift in the activities of production and configuration in floor. Shop floor is a major component in increasing the efficiency, flexibility, and production. It enables Jaguar to make quick changes.
Just in Time or Kanban: Jaguar implements this system in its Lean Management. It closely relates to Cellular Management. Jaguar produces the cars when the customer wants and in the number they want. It works for balancing his production. Jaguar depends on the usage of physical inventory. Jaguar uses reusable containers that give a signal when in need of replenishment. Jaguar also pushes the suppliers to follow the Lean just-in-time principle. It results in a significant elimination of waste reduction and unwanted inventory. It also eliminates the amount of extra work-in-progress, production and packaging costs. (Lippit, 1967, 20)
Six-Sigma: Jaguar also engulfs Six-sigma in Lean management. It gives Jaguar structured methods for a systematic analysis of variation in processes. It supports and directs the continuous organizational execution of improvement functions. Jaguar’s six-sigma toolbox includes analytical and process control techniques. It also drives quality improvement by only 3.4 million defects per million.
Pre-Production Planning: Jaguar aims in waste elimination through redesign of product and process. Experts in Jaguar believe that it is the most transformative and powerful tools in manufacturing. It enables Jaguar for a clean and green product design and development. Jaguar, with the help of 3P, creates designs that take minimum time, resources, and finances. It involves engagement of the diverse group of workers, for meeting customer needs. (Merton, 1936, 21)Alex Miller, Professor of Management at The University of Tennessee in this situation says, “Lean is about constant ticking, not occasional kicking.” (Miller, 2001)
Lean in Jaguar fully realizes the advantages of implementation of manufacturing units. It works aggressively for its supply chain and encourages wide use of lean methodologies. With Lean management in Jaguar, the disruptions because of poor planning, poor quality or delays are entirely eliminated. It includes training, assistance and employee exchanges.

Part B

Capacity Management
Image: Capacity Management Process in Lean Jaguar
Image Source: Lean Work Book
The climate change in the Jaguars was necessary. Therefore, the Jaguar supervisors and managers worked with some external consultants from RWD Technology UK Ltd so as to create and therefore implement a new change in the existing process at the Castle Bromwich. Jaguar's existing quality standards clearly portrayed the already existing reputation of the company in the international markets. It is always advisable to look for and implement new ways and process inductions for the sake of continuous process of development of process.
Primarily, the patterns of working relationships needed necessary transformation. Earlier the factory had an organisational hierarchical structure that required having a single supervisor and group leader who was responsible for almost 30 company workers. But, as per the new structure there should be one team leader who works with a smaller group of almost seven members in a team. (Lewin, 1977, 19William F. Christopher, from A World Class Production System: Lessons of 20 Years in Pursuit of World Class)stated,“Quick and Crude is better than Slow and Elegant says John R. Black.”(Christopher, 2001)
As per the earlier approach it was maintained by an approach with ‘tell and do' format that had instructions that needed to be fed down the hierarchical order to keep control from the work structure. Recently the existing pattern of making decision has been reversed. Members of the groups are required to take accountability of their individual work, and the team leaders should support them. It means that they should be in a helping role. The labour workforces of Jaguar have dramatically accepted the new style of work as it let them to greater indulgence and sharing of responsibility helping them to improve their patterns of work. The increase in quality and productivity reflects. (Northouse, 2009, 22Henry Ford in 1926gave, “Today’s standardization, is the necessary foundation on which tomorrow’s improvements will be based.  If you think “standardization” as the best you know today, but which is to be improved tomorrow – you get somewhere.  But if you think of standards as confining, then progress stops”.(Ford, 1926)
Initial step towards implementing the change related to the workers working in small teams directed by a group leader. This approach is cellular working. The teams, better termed as cells were directed to a chain of new changes or tools that design towards letting them work better and effectively. Recently as per the instructions the teams were trained to work in the real life work areas. (Today’s Deal, 2014, 33) Instead of gathering theoretical knowledge in the classrooms so as to teach them to implement the new changes in real work area making them comfortable and also involving them. An important change has been in maintaining a continuous system of flow of production that has a basis on an approach that was similar to the ‘just-in-time' approach. Earlier the employee groups had relied on different processes that were already set in the Jaguar cars production house and used the components of batches. The defined area of work for a defined process will be made familiar with batches of components that have the direct impact in cramped working of environment and for less space of floors.
Reducing stocks of parts in a workshop to the numbers required to maintain smooth production flow smoothly is the new approach. Fresh stocks are requested by the different teams only when they needed. A fast response from the main store let the new parts reach the workstations in time to use. It reduces wastage in many ways. Less floor space cells require work in a work area that is not cluttered by walking and physically changing between operations and is minimised to lesser parts that break from standing around in batches on the workspace floor.
As recommended by Eliyahu M. Goldratt in The Goal, “If we reduce batch sizes by half, we also reduce by half the time it will take to process a batch. That means we reduce queue and wait by half as well. Reduce those by half, and we reduce by about half the total time parts spend in the plant. Reduce the time parts spend in the plant and our total lead-time condenses. And with faster turn-around on orders, customers get their orders faster” (Goldratt, 2006) Best measures of working systems being improved at Jaguar is by checking the supply of new cars manufactured from Castle Bromwich and also to the demand from the customers of Jaguar. The growing demand for the cars from Jaguar is helping the production managers to estimate the number of Jaguar cars that require production in any one week. The new jargon is "Produce too few, and one will not be able to meet demand; produce too many, and you have a waste of rising inventory". The best way is to maintain manufacturing at the speed that is necessary to match the patterns of demand with quality retention. A process of transparent management system is put in Jaguar to let everyone get indulge in the process towards understanding the performance of the individual parts of the plant towards contributing towards meeting the requirements of performance. A vital part of this initiative is using of Control Boards, which are visual screens. It helps to involve everyone in the production process and helps them to read it at a glance and verify the performance of production and their line of production. The Control Board gives information about the performance of the line against this target and the set daily target in production for each production line. (Online Review, 2014, 23)
As per the new process anyone anytime, on the production line, can verify their relation to the target and the problems that are taking place so that proper help can be requested to solve the problem areas. Jaguar follows a Japanese word called ‘gemba' meaning "to go see and developing new approach to managing production and supervision. Managers often follow gamba, which means to go see and to understand, get hold off and solve problems when they occur instead of sitting in plush offices.
Control Board is a faster and video tool for monitoring the problems occurring areas on the line of production. On the production line of the Jaguar, the cars move along the line with specific teams doing the work on the car in a sequential order. It is important that each worker completes their respective tasks to their best before the car rolls to the next job on the production line. A worker having problem pulls an alarm that alerts his team head to provide assistance. The team leader, having more knowledgeable, and even multi-skilled than the rest of the team members can fast solve the problem and maintains the line to continue the flow forward towards the next line. (Quality Control, 2014, 24)
Ernie Smith, Lean Event Facilitator in the Lean Enterprise Forum at the University of Tennessee stated, “Many people think that Lean is about cutting heads, reducing the work force or cutting inventory. Lean is really a growth strategy. It is about gaining market share and being prepared to enter in or create new markets”, (Smith, 2001) In the above case, the issue does not resolve at a time, the entire line will stop and need to wait till the problem solves. It estimates that there will be a total of 130 - 150 pulling the cord in each shift. The total running must record on the Control boards that indicate the performance of individual line. Thus, it helps the production managers and supervisors to find the problems effectively.
The use of transparent Information Centres in the work areas of the factory is another aspect of the visual management. These working of the Information Centres have basis on the ‘three minute management approach'. Information Centre can effectively help the team members with the help of ‘within three minutes' for understanding the work related objectives and goals even in understanding the issues and problems impacting individual sections of the work area. Shigeo Shingo says, “A relentless barrage of ‘why’s’ is the best way to prepare your mind to pierce the clouded veil of thinking caused by the status quo. Use it often.”(Shingo,2005)
The Information Centre is referred for the communication in a simple and progressive way by using clear and graphical charts and diagrams for highlighting the issues, progress and the events. The diagrams and the work plans are put up on the Information Centre and attest by all of the executives, team leaders and supervisors. They involve in making them for showing a shared sense of responsibility and for understanding of the issues related to work.(Suttle, 2014, 31)

Part C

Recommendations And Conclusion
Following recommendations are given to Jaguar for future establishment of Lean manufacturing:
In some scenarios, the interviews were a part of this effort. It is the first time that the Jaguar’s lean and environmental managers tell explicitly to recognize the association between lean and manufacturing. Enhancing the visibility of the Lean management at automobiles repair section of the manufacturing unit can strengthen a related idea distribution and brainstorming. Lean can play a role in creating performances and actively serving to promote these discussions among Jaguar representatives in the automobile sector.
A lean presence in the automobile sector can be comparable to the models being used by Jaguar's Lean Enterprise, with a special focus on lean. As an option, it may be desirable to attempt with a consortium of manufacturing and motor repair firms through an association. For example, the National Research Programs and its Lean methods to recognize, form, and test lean combination of Jaguar's ideas and models.
The lean combination identified within Jaguar will be important to the automobile and repair sector and also across all or most manufacturing units. As the records indicate that practical, examples from Jaguar are necessary to effective communication on lean management and coordination. Integration possibilities, Jaguars, believes it is worth considering how research on lean coordination in the automobile area can be in other sectors also where there is the significant possibility of lean activities. They are likely to develop a lean integration design template that can be suitable for the particular situation and examples existing in other divisions (e.g. aerospace and construction).
Proper implementation of Lean production will lead Jaguar to reduce waste in the manufacturing of the Jaguar S-type cars at Castle Bromwich. It is thus recommended to implement lean in Jaguar Company. It is a necessity of participation in the academic discussion related to change management exclusively in Jaguar and to discuss the theories of change management for the Jaguar experience has been great. It will talk about more effective working with time available for manufacturing each product. The abounding appliance of the action of angular assembly at Jaguar will actualize a criterion for the addition of the systems at Jaguar. Similar to abounding processes of change, the Jaguar lean principles not simple to implement.
Change can be challenging, and there is no faster alteration of the afresh-fabricated changes to an organization's change administration action, which can be evident. As after effect to be yielded in a change administration process. The ceaseless abutment from all variables in a change by continuously managing the action is necessary. It seems Jaguar has accomplished their change administration, which is still continuing. The change at Jaguar was aggregate of assorted accomplishments that alien top ability of achievement aural the team. The accent appears administration added responsibilities translated into best superior articles with bigger acceleration and bigger chump satisfaction. (Schein, 1985, 25) The approach of teamwork is for recognizing the best way to get each of the employees to get involved towards achieving a quicker response.
(Sloan, 1986, 30)To conclude, Shigeo Shingo (2005) from Toyota says“No single seminar, classroom experience, or “colored belt” will provide bottom-line Lean results.  Lean happens at the process with people, trained and motivated, fully engaged in the hot pursuit of excellence, as they follow your lead and learn to share and support your Lean Vision.”(Shingo, 2005)
Lean production from Jaguar in entire automobile will lead to a cultural and operational environment that is very conducive towards minimization of waste and the prevention of pollution. (Wall, 2007, 34) It effectively enhances the total productivity besides increasing market share and improving the speed-to-market approach with similar new products. Also, it reduces the labour costs of manufacturing and engineering by removing the operations that are non-value-added.

Conclusion

Lean manufacturing study helped us to analyze the factors to set the goals. Benefits by using the Lean time and money has resulted in reasonable cuts and have let the company expansion for greater coverage of the region. (Shacketon, 1995, 29) It eliminates the time required for accomplishing few tasks and therefore adding greater responsibilities. Lastly, it can be said that lean manufacturing and the related implementation is an important topic. Efficiently with time - the time needed to manufacture a car. The teamwork is the best approach, and the best way to achieve this is that for all the employees of the team to get involved in order to achieve a faster response. The concept of Lean production has abled Jaguar to reduce waste. (Schoolfied, 2014, 26)In addition to Shigeo Shingo (2005),“Implementing Lean concepts and principles is not a technological issue, it is primarily a management and human resource issue.”(Shingo, 2005). It has lead to a cultural and operational ambiance that is actual accessory appears abuse of decay and the blockage of pollution. It further enhances the absolute abundance besides accretion allotment and convalescent the speed-to-market access with agnate new products. Also, it reduces the labour costs of accomplishment and engineering by removing the operations that are non-value-added.  Lean manufacturing study helped us to analyse the factors to set the goals. Benefits by using the Lean time and money has resulted in reasonable cuts and have let the company expansion for greater coverage of the region. It eliminates the time appropriate for accomplishing few tasks and accordingly abacus greater responsibilities. Lastly, it can be said that angular accomplishment and the accompanying accomplishing is an important topic.

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Websites
(For Quotes in the Order Used)
Shingo’s ‘Know Why’ Hands-On Lean, http://www.leanceo.com/articles/shingos-know-why-hands-on-lean/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Eric Reis, The lean Startup http://www.stpia.ir/files/The%20Lean%20Startup%20.pdf Accessed on January 11, 2015
Business Epic Kanban http://scaledagileframework.com/business-epic-kanban/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Eric Reis, The lean Startup http://www.stpia.ir/files/The%20Lean%20Startup%20.pdf Accessed on January 11, 2015
Management Principles, http://2012books.lardbucket.org/pdfs/management-principles-v1.0.pdf Accessed on January 11, 2015
Learning from Mistakes, http://c2reflexions.com/2011/08/18/learning-from-mistakes-its-all-about-continuous-improvement/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Business Community, http://www.business2community.com/video-marketing/always-always-will-always-get-always-got-0857788 Accessed on January 11, 2015
The Lean Start-up, http://thebln.com/2011/12/eric-ries-the-lean-startup-london-edition-16th-january-2012/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Lean Manufacturing, http://www.tpslean.com/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
The Power of Single Piece Flow, http://matthrivnak.com/page/2/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Lean Manufacturing, http://www.leadingedgegroup.com/canada/lean-inspiring-quotes/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Lean Journey, http://www.aleanjourney.com/2010/07/do-you-know-how-to-handle-your.html Accessed on January 11, 2015
The Heart of Toyota Production System, http://accessengineeringlibrary.com/browse/toyota-way-14-management-principles-from-the-worlds-greatest-manufacturer/c9780071392310ch03 Accessed on January 11, 2015
Lean Manufacturing, http://www.leadingedgegroup.com/canada/2014/06/page/3/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Lean Manufacturing, http://www.leadingedgegroup.com/canada/lean-inspiring-quotes/ Accessed on January 11, 2015
Continuous Improvement Through Standardization, http://www.ame.org/sites/default/files/target_articles/86q2a1.pdf Accessed on January 11, 2015
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Eric Reis, The lean Startup http://www.stpia.ir/files/The%20Lean%20Startup%20.pdf Accessed on January 11, 2015
Appendices
Table 2: Lean Score Categories

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