Free Essay On Depression
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Depression is the continuous feeling of low moods each day for at least two weeks that interferes with a person’s daily activities. The causes of depression are not easy to understand. Some people just develop it while some are prone to the condition. Genetic factors may also play a role in one developing signs and symptoms of depression. Episodes of depression can be triggered by life events like when one has a relationship issue, bereavement, illnesses or redundancy.
Statistics show that depression affects every 5 out of 100 adults each year. The statistics further show that depression can be mild and lasts a few weeks or a few days. An episode of depression can affect 1 out every four women or 1 out of ten men at one point or the other in their lives. The statistics also show that some people may have two or more episodes at different times in their lives. The statistics show that women are more prone to develop depression more than women. Women are shown to suffer from depression during menopause and after childbirth (Smarr, 2013).
Signs and symptoms of depression
Some people may realize when they have signs and symptoms of depression though some people may not realize when they are depressed. One might notice that they are not functioning normally, but may not think they are suffering from depression. The key signs and symptoms of depression include persistent sadness or feeling low. In this case, one may weep or in other cases one will not weep, but will always complain of low moods that may manifest in not wanting to even talk to friends and family. The other key symptom of depression is loss of interest in pleasurable or interesting activities. One begins to lose all interest in activities they normally enjoy doing. One may lose the interest gradually or instantly.
The other common symptoms that are associated with depression include disturbed sleep as compared to the normal sleeping patterns. It may be common to find one finding it difficult for one to sleep or get back to sleep in case they get up at the middle of the night. The other symptom is change in appetite that leads to weight loss or weight gain in case of an increase in appetite. Fatigue is also a sign of depression that may include agitation and sometimes loss of energy. Some other symptoms include poor levels of concentration and lack of decisiveness in regards to reading, working or performing daily chores. As a result of these symptoms, one feels worthless or at times, one feel guilty for no appropriate reason. These later results in recurring thoughts of death that may progress to suicidal attempts (Halbreich & Kahn, 2014).
Types of depression
Depression is classified according to the severity of a person that normally differs from one person to the other. The first type of depression is severe depression where one would have all the symptoms stated. As a result, the depression would have interfered with most of the daily functioning of the individual. The second type of depression is moderate depression. In this case, one portrays more than five of the symptoms of depression that are required to make a depression diagnosis. The signs and symptoms in this type of depression is that both the core symptoms of depression will be present during diagnosis. As a result, one will suffer from either mild or sever impairment of normal functioning.
The other type of depression is mild depression where one will display up to five symptoms that are used in making a diagnosis. It is not likely for one to display more than five or six of the symptoms of depression. The normal functioning of an individual are only moderately impaired. The other type of depression is the sub threshold depression where one will display less than five signs of depression used for making a diagnosis. Due to the few symptoms of depression in this kind, it is not classified as a kind of depression. However, the signs and symptoms one has can cause distress and anxiety. In case the situation is continuous for over two years, then the situation can be referred to as dysthymia (Smarr, 2013).
Various risk factors contribute to one developing the condition. One of the risk factors includes genetic factors. There are some genetic factors that increase the vulnerability of one developing depression. The condition may be passed down family generation. The other risk factor for depression is physical conditions some of which are diagnosed and others are undiagnosed. The diagnosed physical conditions that increases the risk of depression is those who are trying to cope with a major physical disease. In many cases, one may fall into depression as they try to adjust to their condition. On the other hand, the undiagnosed physical conditions can make one feel depressed and this may result in minor depression (Forsell, 2009).
Diagnostic criteria and nursing assessments
In order for an individual to be diagnosed as suffering from depression there are factors that are taken into consideration. The first one is that one should display more than five of the nine symptoms of depression and at least one of the core signs of the condition. The other diagnostic procedure is that the symptoms should result in distress and impairs their normal daily functioning like work and home performance. The other criterion is that the symptoms should occur during most of the times in the day and have been present for at least two week in a row. The last criterion is that the symptoms are not as a result of taking medication. Some side-effects of taking medication may include depression or arise from underactive pituitary gland. The diagnostic procedure may also include physical symptoms that get worse each day. The physical symptoms may range from headaches, chest pains and general aches in the body. The other thing to watch out for is cases of hallucinations or delusions where one begins to display these psychotic symptoms. The person may start feeling that people are plotting something against them. One may also feel, taste, smell or see something that is unreal (Smarr, 2013).
When making assessments, some of the factors that are done to eliminate the undiagnosed conditions that may mimic depression. The nurses and doctors may order for diagnosis of hypothyroidism through a blood test. Hypopituitarism is the other condition that should be eliminated in order to ensure a proper diagnosis of depression. Head injury is also a common assessment that needs to be done in order to make a correct diagnosis of depression. Early dementia is also a condition that may be confused with depression and during an assessment of depression it should be eliminated (Brink, 2014).
Management of depression
Some of the ways to manage depression include use of anti-depressant medicines. The other management for depression is psychological or talking treatments. In this case, psychological treatments are used to manage depression. These include cognitive behavior therapy where one is helped to understand their thought pattern in order to change the way one feels and thinks. The other management is the use of interpersonal therapy where one’s interaction with others is shaped to make one feel and think good about oneself. The other management is behavioral activation where the therapist helps combat unhelpful habits and behaviors. Couples therapy also helps manage depression especially when it results from problems with a partner.
Evidence-based practice guidelines
Various evidence based practices on identification of clinical problems and implementation of nursing skills are present. These include the self-help programme based on CBT. A practitioner may aim at providing and identifying problems through the use of manuals then monitor the progress a patient is making. A nurse monitoring the progress of such a patient can identify clinical problems in the change of progress or difference in attitude of the patient. The nurse acts as a silent partner where her role is to keep up with the changes and make changes in medication if need arises. The other evidence based practice is group-based therapy where a meeting of 8-10 patients comes together in weekly meetings to discuss issues facing them. A nurse can act as a mediator and conduct evaluation of progress of individual patients. The nurse can listen to the patients as they talk about their feelings and emotions and identify the progress of each. The nurse can determine who should continue with the group session and those who should go for other management options. This is more so for the physically sick patients who strain to keep up with the other patients (Forsell, 2009).
Brink, T. (2014). Assessment of Depression in College Students: Geriatric Depression Scale
Versus Center For Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Psychological Reports,
Forsell, Y. (2009). A three-year follow-up of major depression, dysthymia, minor depression and
subsyndromal depression: Results from a population-based study. Depression and
Anxiety, 3(56), 62-65.
Halbreich, U., & Kahn, L. (2014). Atypical depression, somatic depression and anxious
depression in women: Are they gender-preferred phenotypes? Journal of Affective
Smarr, K. (2013). Measures of depression and depressive symptoms: The Beck Depression
Inventory (BDI), Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D),
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and
Primary Care Evaluation o. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 5(67), S134-S146.
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