Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Internet, Nursing, Medicine, Hospital, Information, Network, Virtualization, Security

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2021/01/01

Diploma in Computing & Systems Development

Level 5
1.0 TASK 1

Significant tech differences between ADSL and Recommended Alternative

Using ASDL phones is not suitable as the only communications at a hospital because the staff in out of the hospital need be able to communicate reliably with mobiles. ASDL connects to the Internet using existing copper telephone lines known as Plain Old Telephone Services (POTS). VoIP can support smart phones, pager messaging and other mobile devices and with the correct interfacing analog phones can be supported by VoIP (Shepler 2005). A gateway is needed for the interface so different networks can be connected. The secret is the RJ-11 or similar socket on Analog Telephone Adaptors that allow the telephones to plug in the same way they do to a wall socket to connect to telephone in the wall (Shelpler 2005).
ADSL is able to convey higher speed downstream service and slower speed upstream service, but can only handle voice, video and data (Dean, 2009). VoIP can be designed to meet all the needs of the two hospitals including e-mail, access to EHRs held in the main database, transfer of digital x-rays and other digital records. In order to develop a design to meet the needs of the users, data needs to be collected about how care-giver staff and employees communicate and how departments communicate with each other. VoIP can then be configured to optimally meet the needs of Salen and Oban hospitals.
1.2 Switched Multimegabit Data Service – SMDS
The best option for the hospitals to connect is to open up to the full T-3 bandwidth of 45Mbps in order to share large files like CAT Scans. Routers for each site can be purchased with the purpose of directing LAN traffic over an SMDS network. The telephone service can set up the access needed to link SMDS equipment.
The SMDS transmissions bases speed is approximately 1.4 Mbps (T-1). The peak speed is approximately 45 Mbps (T-3). The two hospitals can use the set-up and one more router for a third hospital in the future can handle the traffic. The reason SMDS is a good choice is that it can handle big files and it offers the multi-Virtual Channels with only one service. The multiple channels are a practical way to route systems that are distant and have different hospital use configurations.
Further research is needed to choose the best configuration that will meet the needs of the hospitals. An important step is to learn how the doctors, nurses, staff, technicians and patients are using electronic methods for accessing and sharing medical data. After that information is collected the best design can be planned for the hospitals.

Types of Traffic that the Hospital Might Expect on the WAN Link

The types of traffic that Salen Hospital might expect on the WAN link that would require new connection include:
Voice over Internet Protocol Phone: This is utilized in Salen Hospital for telecommunications and sending voice messages directly with Oban Hospital via VoIP on WAN link.
Medical images archiving and communication using Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS): Salen Hospital can share and store medical pictures and data with Oban Hospital through the use of PAC Systems, thus, doctors and other medical staff in both hospitals are able to get access to all medical pictures stored in both of these hospitals’ PACS archives (Huang, 2010).
Patient Records System: It is a way in which Salen Hospital is able to view and share with Oban Hospital patients’ medical records through the use of WAN link. This system permits more effective and efficient decision making, as well as accurate patient record transfer (Stegwee & Spil, 2001).
Hospital Information Management System: Salen Hospital utilizes this for recording appointments, checking availability of doctors and other medical staff, maintaining medical stock, managing medical data and sharing information regarding urgent patient care and other information sharing such as regarding accounting and financial issues with Oban Hospital (ibid.).
CCTV Surveillance System: Salen Hospital can share its CCTV surveillance system viewing with Oban Hospital’s security department on WAN link.
Web traffic: Web traffic can be optimized so that the most important communications are assigned the fastest layer of the Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) cloud systems. The MPLS is described more in Task 2.1. The communications include the important conversations with doctors using their mobile phones from a patient’s location or while commuting to work. The web traffic will include medical topics, providing health, administrative and video conferencing.

Security from Malicious Interference via the Internet

Firewalls are protection that is offered with unified threat management (UTM) (Whitman et al., 2013). All the web traffic passes through a firewall but the malicious data is stopped. Viruses, Trojans, spyware and unauthorized intrusions are identified because they do not have the security criteria that give them authorization to pass (Gattine 2015). On the other hand, another opinion is that firewalls do not protect the system from viruses and Trojans (personal note from tutor). The amount of money and time spent for monitoring the system against threats needs to be decided in order to find the best alternative.
Figure 1.1: Firewall configuration example

Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gattine 2015)

Firewalls can protect the hospital networks from attacks externally and internally. Figure 1.1 is an example of a firewall between WAN and the hospitals traffic that is represented by the three local area networks (LAN) on the right. The router in figure 1 is located at a gateway and forwards the IP data packets according to their address. The Salen and Oban Hospitals will need more than one router, but that depends on the IT design.
Firewalls are the point where audit and security are imposed on data packets (Gattene 2015). The firewall logs all the traffic by type and volume: transport/network layer firewall and application layer firewall.
Two Internet Protocol filtering routers are positioned between the private network and the Internet. For the hospitals a De-Militarized Zone (DMZ) secure system is positioned between two routers to protect the systems. One IP filtering router is for the Salen network and the other for Oban. The host for Salen’s network is separated by the IP filtering router and DMZ for protection from the public network. The IP filtering router near the Internet opens some services to the private network without passing the bastion host so firewalls need to be positioned on each side of the DMZ. The firewalls can be controlled so that websites that are needed from the public Internet can be allowed, but others can be stopped.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

One of the methods that Salen Hospital and Oban Hospital can make certain that communications are not interfered with and remain secure, is the implementation of Virtual Private Network (VPN). VPN technology uses the Internet to connect a special network to perform secure data transfer and offers navigating freely on the internet. VPN networks are extremely secure so that it encrypts each packet of data which was transferred using a tunnelling protocol (Stewart, 2014). During data transfer via VPN, data packets before being transferred over the unsafe network are encrypted. In this way, Salen Hospital is able to ensure its communications with Oban Hospital are secure when connecting through the use of the Internet. The encryption secures the data so unauthorized individuals cannot have access.

Wide Area Network (WAN) Diagram for Salen Hospital

Figure 2-3 is a schematic of an example of a three-layer WAN Topology for Salen and Oban Hospitals. The components are explained below.
Figure 2-1 3-Layer WAN Topology for Salen and Oban Hospitals
A three-layer (L3) WAN running Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) across a service provider L3 VPN network has advantages for the needs of Salen as seen Figure 2.1 (Mega Path 2012). The L3 design enhances speed by organizing transmission traffic by layer. The branch office represents Salen and the headquarters represents Oban.
Figure 2-1 Main facility or Salen Hospital
The PBX is part of the VoIP and the configuration is suited for Ethernet. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is the protocol that gives the best for video conferencing and instant messaging using VoIP (Gattene 2015). Legacy PBX can now be replaced by improved VoIP PBX systems and that needs to be done for the Salen and Oban Hospitals IT system (Brownlee 2013).
2.2 Devices Used for Salen Hospital Network
In the scenario, the enterprise is sending traffic to each other in two locations, Oban and Salen hospital. The traffic from Oban is sent via generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnels and tunnelled using service providers MPLS network. Traffic can also be encrypted using IPSec and tunnelled using GRE to the branch site using ISP MPLS transport. From the carrier router at Salen connecting Salen hospital, traffic is then handed off using GRE tunnels to the customer premise equipments. They include switches and hubs which connect to LANs.

The Private Branch Exchange (PBX) is a telephone system in the hospitals that operates internally and externally.

The WAN is the wide-area network that spreads out into a large geographical region. The WAN works to link local area networks (LAN) and transport the data from LAN to LAN; most WAN protocols operate at Layer 2 but the WAN protocols can also be configured specifically to operate in Layer 3.
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is helpful because data packets can move to the switching level, Level 2, without being routed using Layer 3. The service provider can assign the appropriate labels to the data packets so the best path can be taken, using the private or public network.
A virtual private network (VPN) is virtualized to the point that it cannot be held or touched. The data is virtualized because it has no physical form, although it does pass from one point to another across a network. The VPN is considered private because of the way a network is configured. The factors that make the data private while in a VPN is that it is discrete, even though the VPN is part of a network, it is built to be separate and discrete within network infrastructures between two organizations.
2.3 Carrier router
A Cisco MGX 8900 switch is proposed as the carrier router because the switch can control based on the scale of network traffic. The switch supports the Multiprotocol Label Switching. (MPLS) recommended. These features are appropriate in the case of Oban and Salen hospitals which are likely to expand in the future.
2.4 Customer premise equipment (CPE)
The idea behind the CPE is that the service provider places the necessary equipment (physically not virtually) at the customer’s location, not the provider’s location. CPE can be located between the provider and customer in order to accommodate DSL routers.
IP and MLPS are accommodated for future expansion with Cisco XR series routers. The routers are intelligently (automatically) scalable from 2.5- to 10-Gbps capacity (Cisco 2015). VPN with MPLS connected from site-to-site with three layers to coordinate and prioritize traffic for less time for data to travel, less distance. Site to site includes from remote sites. There is also support for fixed and modular line cards and multi-
2.5 Firewall
QVF 7305 is a QOS VPN Firewall can meet the needs for Salen Hospital. The fibre optic lines can be designed to meet the configuration needs of the Salen and Oban hospitals, as well as the NHS. The load of data traffic is balanced based on IP addresses. The router supports MPLS, VPN and the other protocols recommended for the hospital.
2.6 HP MPLS VPN manager software
The Hewlett Packard IMC MPLS VPN Manager Software is needed to manage and monitor the MPLS VPN system. The software can monitor the entire systems. It is an intelligent system and offers the capabilities for auto-discovery, monitoring, allocating resources and performance evaluation (HP 2015).

Domain Name System (DNS) Decision

The DNS should be used for the guest partition not for the hospital. In the case of the Salen and Oban hospitals, Salen Hospital has its local area network, as does Oban Hospital. In order for Salen Hospital to send data to Oban Hospital, the two LANs have to be connected. A VPN will offer a platform where data can be sent between the two private networks in a secure manner over the Internet. This VPN connection is usable by any other hospital which is under the control of Oban Hospital in its main domain to send and receive data reliably and securely. Meanwhile, Salen needs to keep its original DNS for guest activity and the local area so patients know how to access the hospital. The new DNS needs to be used only for the information transfers between Oban and Salen. The two DNS will naturally offer another layer of security since guests of Salen will have no access to the Salen DNS.

How a VPN will work for Oban Hospital and Salen Hospital

The VPN configuration will work well because a partition between guest activity who access the public network and where the patient data is kept. It is recommended that guest activity be limited to browser without any access to the VPN or any other hospital applications. A VPN will offer a platform where data can be sent between the two private networks in a secure manner over the Internet. This VPN connection is usable by any other hospital which is under the control of Oban Hospital in its main domain to send and receive data reliably and securely.
A VPN is a network protocol which allows internal and external employees communicate seamlessly. VPN connection is via the internet and security is provided by encryption. Information transmitted via the encrypted tunnel cannot be read by any other party. The use of VPN connection by Salen Hospital will come with several benefits. A VPN will allow Oban Hospital LAN to connect to any other hospital under its control over the internet as if it were directly connected to its LAN. This connection will increase flexibility of its network systems as it will be easier for the doctor who visits Salen hospital to access patient data or hospital information from any location. Data sent over VPN is secure since it is encrypted, hence anybody who might intercept it will not be able to read it. In order to ensure its security, data is encapsulated and sent through tunnels (Stewart, 2014). A tunnelling protocol ensures that data is not visible to another party that might be using the public network. A VPN will be very reliable as any user, whether at Salen Hospital or Oban Hospital; will access data easily and quickly.
These two hospitals will need a site-to-site VPN connection which can be any of these two types: extranet-based VPN and intranet-based VPN. The most suitable will be intranet-based VPN as this is used to connect two locations of the same organization. Salen Hospital’s LAN will be connected to Oban Hospital’s WAN to form a large private network. In this kind of configuration, most resources such as software and peripheral equipment will be shared hence reducing costs of setup.

Monitor the Network for Connection Issues and Identify Outages

In order to monitor the network for connection issues and identify outages, SolarWindsNetwork Performance Monitor is recommended for Salen Hospital. In dashboard of SolarWinds Network Performance Monitor, all the different models of all devices are seen in the All Nodes part. In the case, when there is no problem with these nodes, then the green box flashes, as demonstrated in Figure 4.1. On the other hand, in the case when problem occurs, then the red point appears next to the nodes, as shown in Figure 4.1. Then, by bringing the mouse on the nodes, then most important information can be found out about that node such as CPU Load, Packet Loss and Average Response Time.
Figure 4.1 All Nodes Managed by NPM
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Further down the SolarWind dashboard there is a section Nodes with Problems, which displays whether the nodes Up or Down, which nodes change status and whether the latest status of the nodes is Up or Down. All of this information is presented as a summary in the Nodes with Problems section of the dashboard, as demonstrated in Figure 4.2. Additionally, in order to gain in-depth information regarding the nodes, clicking the specific node will display more information about that node such as “Average CPU Load & Memory Utilization, Average Response Time & Packet Loss, Network Latency & Packet Loss, All Interfaces on the Selected Node, Active Alerts on This Node and Management”( SolarWinds, 2014).
Figure 4.2: Nodes with Problems
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014)
In the Event Summary section, which is located further down in the dashboard, all collected events are presented (see Figure 4.3). Generally, critical events are highlighted in red, events that need to be taken care of are highlighted in blue, while highlight in yellow signifies that no problem exists as shown in Figure 4.3. Furthermore, by clicking the event header, outages and detail information regarding the problem are displayed.
Figure 4.3: Event Summary
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).

Monitor the Network for Performance Issue and Security Breaches

In order to monitor the network for performance issue and security breaches, the same program SolarWinds Network Performance Monitor can be implemented. Inside the Network Menu, Active Alerts section displays the latest information regarding which nodes had problems and changes as shown in Figure 4.4. In addition, it is possible to identify from the Active Alerts which individual did what at what time, which nodes have been Up or Down, high transaction and packet loss. Also, in depth information regarding the nodes can be revealed by clicking on the chosen node.
Figure 4.4: Active Alerts
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Furthermore, in the Network Menu, the Interface with High Percent Utilization displays information about the amount of data streaming each node has, as shown in Figure 4.5. In this way locked up points can be easily identified. It enables to assess more detailed information regarding Download and Upload speeds and by which ports and interfaces.
Figure 4.5: Interface with High Percent Utilization
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Moreover, inside the Network Menu, the High Error & Discards Today section displays packet loss as seen in Figure 4.6. For example, there are increased amount of transmit errors on any node, then by getting inside that node it can be checked accordingly. In the case that there is abnormal traffic, this means that someone is sending data or spam constantly or there is much more serious security issue present. Observation of this enables careful analysis and so the cause of the problem can be more readily and effectively identified and resolved.
Figure 4.6: High Errors & Discards Today
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Additionally, in the Firewall Menu, the status of the firewalls on the network can be observed. Also, the Firewalls section shows all the firewalls in the network grouped by vendor type, as seen in Figure 4.7. Then, in the PCI Compliance Overview section the number of points that are problematic and unproblematic is displayed (see Figure 4.7). Moreover, the Security Audit Summary section shows the security issues that have potential to cause risk (see Figure 4.7).
Figure 4.7: Firewalls, PCI Compliance Overview, Security Audit Summary
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).

Annual Report for the Hospital Board on the Overall Performance of the Network

SolarWinds Report Writer can be implemented to produce annual reports for the Hospital Board on the performance of the network. SolarWinds Report Writer comes with SolarWinds Network Performance Monitor. In order to start Report Writer: “Click Start > All Programs > SolarWindsOrion > Alerting, Reporting, and Mapping > Report Writer” (SolarWinds, 2014).
Then, the list of report types are presented on left side as seen Figure 4.7. and the header “Availability-This Year Report” under “Availability” group is selected in order to get the report of the network performance.
In the case of producing a different type of report, then “Click File > New Report” is selected. Thus, individual reports can be created for the network.
Figure 4.7: SolarWinds Orion Report Writer
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Furthermore, changes to the report group name, report title and description of the report can be made by going to sections “Report Group”, “Report Title” and “Description” and by altering the text inside those fields.
Then, in order to add some more fields that are required for the report, then “Select fields” is clicked. Afterwards, click Browse (), and select “Add a New Field”. Then, click the Field asterisk (*), and select a field that needs to be added in the report, as displayed in Figure 4.8.
Figure 4.8: SolarWinds Orion Report Writer
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
As well as that, by clicking “Select Relative Time Frame”, time frame for this report can be specified. In order to create the annual report or the Hospital Board on the performance of the network, then one year exact time frame has to be input into the field, as shown in Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9: SolarWinds Orion Report Writer
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Furthermore, in order to break down the report day-by-day, then click “Summarization” and specify required choices, as shown in Figure 4.10 (SolarWinds 2014).
Figure 4.10: Solar Winds Orion Report Writer
Source: SolarWinds (2014), screenshot produced by Student (2014).
Lastly, once the required annual report containing all necessary information for the Hospital Board on the performance of the network is written, then “Click Execute SQL Query” to view the final report. Then, after the final check, click “File > Save” to save the complete version of the annual report.
In this way, SolarWinds Orion Report Writer program can be implemented for producing effective annual reports for the Hospital Board on the performance of the network efficiently.


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