Free Suicide Intervention Term Paper Sample
In today's world of suicide kills more people than all the combined conflicts. The assistance of professional consultants for Suicide Prevention is clearly becoming a necessary and critical in the world. Suicide causes a complex interaction of biological, genetic, psychological, sociological, cultural factors, coupled with environmental factors. Improvements in the recognition of suicidal behavior in society, referral and increase control manifestations of such behavior - the most important steps to prevent suicides. It is crucial to prevent - to determine vulnerable and at-risk individuals; understand the circumstances that affect their self-destructive behavior, and to effectively structure interventions. That is why counselors need to develop initiatives of social influence, both to prevent and to control the manifestations of suicidal behavior. The very practical activities of a professional advisor can be defined as the application of the principles of mental health and development of the human psyche through cognitive, emotional, behavioral or systemic intervention strategies. By applying these strategies, professional counselors act on such aspects as the general well-being and personal development, professional development, as well as mental health pathology. Consultants receive vocational education and training, and often work in schools, colleges and universities, career guidance organizations, institutions dealing with substance abuse clinics and hospitals. Suicide prevention includes a diverse set of activities, in particular, interested attitude to parenting, family counseling, treatment of mental disorders, control of environmental factors and public education. Effective public education - vital primary form of intervention - involves understanding the causes of suicide, as well as the prevention and treatment.
We consider the problem of suicide intervention from a point of police consultants. Consultants can assist in a better understanding of the relationship between substance abuse and mood disorders, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behavior. Consultants can also help prevent relapse in planning, establishing a network of social support and, if necessary, referral to centers of more intensive treatment of mental disorders and alcohol and drug addiction. The need for clear installation principles applicable in practice, accessible and informative to control a crisis situation with suicides is evident, especially in developing countries. Unfortunately, among the programs for mental health rare to find a comprehensive training program to control suicide.
In the profession consultant suicide client refers to "occupational hazards". Statistics show that in practice, approximately 25% of the consultants, there are times when a client commits suicide. Suicide could potentially have a negative effect on already practicing and preparing for the work of consultants. Those consultants who have experienced such a situation, say that had a feeling of wounded pride, obsessive thoughts and heavy dreams, feeling both anger and guilt in response to the death of his client.
It is estimated that in 2000, committed suicide one million people, which gives reason to believe suicide is one of the 10 leading causes of death in many countries. Suicide attempt made about 10 - 20 times as many people. Under assumptions of the real numbers are much higher. Although the number of cases of suicide varies in different demographic categories over the past 50 years, the numbers have grown by about 60%. Reducing the number of victims of suicide becomes critical to protect the mental health of people worldwide. And consultants can play in preventing suicide crucial role.
Protective factors reduce the risk of suicide; they, as an insulating material, protect against suicide. Among them are the following:
Support from family, friends and other important people in one's life
Religious, cultural and ethnic values
Participation in society
Satisfying life in society
Social integration, e.g. through work activities, constructive use of leisure
Availability of access to mental health
Although such protective factors do not eliminate the risk of suicide, they can neutralize the strong stressful situations that arise in life.
Risk factors and risk situations
Suicidal behavior is most often manifested in certain circumstances due to cultural, genetic, psychosocial factors, and environmental factors. Among the general risk factors include the following:
Low socio-economic status and educational level; loss of a job
Dysfunctional family situation, relationship issues in the community and with support systems
Trauma, such as physical and sexual abuse
The loss of loved ones
Mental disorders such as depression, personality disorders, schizophrenia, alcohol and substance abuse
Feeling of worthlessness and hopelessness
Issues of sexual orientation (such as homosexuality)
Characteristics and behaviors (e.g., cognitive style and personality characteristics)
Lack of common sense, self-control and self-destructive behavior
Underdeveloped coping skills and adapt to the situation
Illness and chronic pain
Suicide loved ones
Having access to the means of self-harm
Destructive and violent events (such as war or catastrophic disasters)
According to experts about 90% of people commit suicide suffer from mental disorders, 60% of them at the time of committing suicide suffer from depression. In fact, all kinds of mood disorders associated with suicidal behavior. Depression and its symptoms (e.g., depression, lethargy, anxiety sensations, irritability, sleep disorders and diet) should alert all counselors, as they indicate the potential risk of suicide. An increased risk of suicide has also been associated with schizophrenia, substance abuse, personality disorders, anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress and related diseases. Approximately 10-15% of schizophrenia commits suicide, which is consistently the most common cause of death for people experiencing psychosis. Increase personal insights of mental disorder, a decrease in the duration of treatment, as well as increased symptoms of depression associated with an increased risk of suicide in people who are among the mentally ill. The consequences of alcohol abuse during critical life situations and stressors can lead to a limited vision of reality and the potential to inflict self-harm. Alcoholism, in particular in combination with depression and personality disorders may also increase the risk of suicide.
In 90% of the deaths of children and adolescents as a result of suicide as a major cause called some form of mental disorder, and, in most cases are diagnosed mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and destructive behavior. Suicidal individuals often carry a heavier burden in life than non-suicidal members of the same population. Under the environmental factors we mean facts cruelty against a person, family problems, cultural differences, difficulties in interpersonal relations and the presence of a strong and chronic stress. In combination with depressed mood, these factors increase the likelihood of suicide. In fact, an additional sense of hopelessness, which arises from the awareness of the burden of life, is even stronger predictor of risk for suicide than depression. Previous suicide attempts increase the risk of suicide. In addition, among the leading risk factors it can be determined constant thoughts of self-harm and suicide-laid plans. That is the biggest risk - this is when a person has the means, opportunity and a specific plan for suicide in patients without a deterrent. Critical for a consultant when selecting approach is to identify risk factors associated with suicidal behavior. Knowledge of the risk factors can determine the measures of prevention and intervention, helping advisers identify those individuals who make up the group at risk.
Therefore, training consultants to risk assessment is essential to reduce the number of suicides. While there is no "common style" warning of the intention to commit suicide, warning signs can serve as such manifestations as lack of interest in their own well-being; changes in communicating with others, the decline in labor productivity at work or school performance; changes in eating and sleeping habits; attempts to arrange personal affairs or make amends to others; an unusual interest in the well-being of others; concern the themes of death and violence; sudden improvement in mood after the depression; and sudden or increased promiscuity in sexual relations.
Unfortunately, there are no generally accepted set methods of working with suicidal or potentially suicidal person. However, consulting services should respond to the needs of suicidal personality. Identification, assessment and treatment of suicidal personality require consideration a number of important variables. Suicidal person has a number of requirements, the need to obtain information, to the needs in counseling and treatment with medicines. Often a combination is assigned a brief supportive counseling and medication to treat depression or other types of behavior. When a person is preoccupied with thoughts of suicide, it is important to begin immediately to take control measures. This includes an assessment (e.g., level of experience duality, impulsivity, rigidity and lethality of means of self-fatal injury), attracting support the establishment of agreements and various forms of engagement and participation of the family, as well as counseling. Control the behavior of the suicidal person may also include medication or hospitalization. Control suicidal crisis situation should not just be a separate event. Often, it is essential that other health authorities have been included, and in some cases, even to notify authorities. Consultants with many clients should be particularly aware of their ability to effectively overcome the crisis. In addition, it is necessary to know the ethical standards and local laws regarding the involvement of third parties. It is critical that the consultants worked with health professionals in the prevention of suicide.
Counselors, psychologists, social workers, psychiatric nurses’ offices, psychiatrists and doctors should interact and cooperate to jointly provide the public with information on the nature of suicide and to establish links between service centers and plans for mental health and medical treatment.
During the high risk of suicide counselor is very important:
Keep calm and offer support
Do not condemn
Promote the full candor
Recognize suicide as an option, but not to recognize suicide as a "normal" option
Listen sympathetically and emphatically strengthen (reinforce) self-care
Focus on the counseling process "here and now"
Avoid deep counseling as long as the crisis is past
Turn to other people for help in assessing the potential of the individual self-harm
Ask questions about the end of life
Eliminate funds for the care of life
Make effective decisions during a crisis control
Consultants can provide useful for the masses educational information that can help reduce the number of suicides. For example, it is important for counselors to disclose alarming warning signs of suicidal behavior. Education about suicide can help the public become aware of these warning signs of suicide, dispel myths about suicide while promising to those who are potentially suicidal and needs rethinking facing him (her) alternatives. Public organizations, employees of primary health care and consultants can benefit by spreading such information about suicide, such as special circumstances (i.e., loss of a job and as a result, the strength of family relationships) and risk factors (i.e. depression, mental illness, drug and alcohol addiction, heredity). Moreover, it is important for counselors to work in schools, helping to inform and educate parents and teachers in methods to identify students who are at risk of suicide. School counselors should teach students how to identify and suicidal behavior and provide information on how and where to find help. For example, students in programs for the prevention of suicide need information and skills training to show empathy, active listening, and reach those friends who might need help. In addition, useful information to help students survive during development of the storm of emotions publicized suicide or attempted suicide plays an important role and contributes to the prevention of so-called suicide for the company, from imitation, yet they are called cluster suicides. Centers for Disease Control US have developed recommendations that are widely used to reduce these cluster (of imitation, for the company) suicide.
For consultants, it is important to have a plan ready to communicate with the media in the case of suicide. This plan should include a request to the journalists not to praise, not to idealize and dramatize death in an attempt to prevent the suicide of imitation. Self-help groups with programs for survivors of suicide are a constructive method of intervention after the fact of suicide. This group work on self-improvement, which is organized by the survivors, can provide useful information about the process of bereavement experiences, information about suicide, as well as the different roles of professional consultants to assist bereaved.
Consultants working with groups of survivors of suicide can provide great comfort to friends and families of those killed by his hand. Emotions experienced loss often oscillates between feelings of guilt, anger and grief. In such situations, consultants can provide them with the opportunity to realize what they are feeling. Many families talk about the need for counseling immediately after a suicide attempt. Such counseling can help families cope with the stress of trying, and to clarify their role in relationships and helping to make an attempt. Or help friends and family to commit suicide. Where appropriate, the consultants can also help family and friends better understand the impact of mental disorders on suicidal behavior and reduce the risk of suicide in imitation, or social suicide. Group counseling after the fact includes techniques such as stress reduction and a sense of loss associated with suicide and promotes more rapid recovery of the state of lamenting the loss.
World Health Organization. Preventing suicide: how to start a survivors’ group. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
Popenhagen MP, Qualley RM. Adolescent suicide. Detection, intervention, and prevention. Professional school counseling, 1998, 1: 30-35.
Pfeffer CR. Clinical perspectives on treatment of suicidal behavior among children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 1990, 20: 143-150.
Patel V, Thara R. Meeting the mental health needs of developing countries: NGO innovations in India. New Delhi: Sage, 2003.
Shaffer D, Craft L. Methods of adolescent suicide prevention. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999, 60 (Suppl. 2): 70-74.
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