Good Example Of Essay On Major Counseling Theories Comparison Paper

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Psychology, Behavior, Theory, Therapy, Brain, Solution, Development, Motivation

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/27

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Behavioral Theory

In early twentieth century, Watson J. B. founded the behavioral theory. It was the first formulation of a comprehensible learning theory in contemporary western society. In the following few decades, various perspectives emerged from people like, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, and Lloyd C. Morgan (Harmening, 2010). Standard interventions for the above mentioned theory include; the belief that every individual can potentially be taught to execute any task, irrespective of issues like internal thoughts, personality traits, and genetic background. As such, all they require is the correct conditioning. Additionally, there is classical conditioning; a method used in behavioral teaching in which response is paired with naturally arising stimulus. Eventually, the former neutral stimulus ends up evoking the response in the absence of the naturally arising stimulus.
These two characteristics are referred to as the conditioned response and the conditioned stimulus. Equally, there is operant conditioning; a technique of learning that happens through punishments and reinforcements for behavior (Harmening, 2010). As a result, an association is established between a behavior and an end result for that behavior. When a behavior occurs because of a desirable result, it is then more likely that the behavior will happen again in the future. On the contrary, behaviors that occur because of negative results are less likely to occur once more in the future.
Behavioral theory has three main ideas; first, behavioral theory gives more emphasis on observable behavior instead of inner cognitive processes. As such, some kind of observable outward behavior may be noticed if learning has taken place. Second, this theory asserts that behavior and learning are shaped by the environment, not the characteristics of an individual. Third, reinforcement and contiguity principles are essential to explaining the process of learning. Therefore, the study of behavior can be done in an observable and systematic manner without considering the internal states of the mind. Additionally, educational practices that believe in behavioral theory’s ideas always include in their teachings performance and behavioral objectives. Similarly, they usually include instructions that are systematically designed, and accountability of the instructor (Vito & Jeffrey, 2012).

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis founded cognitive behavior therapy in the 1960’s. At this time psychiatrists and psychologists had initiated the experiential studies of how behavior and emotions were affected by thinking or cognitions. Cognitive behavior therapy main features include; skills training, exposure therapy, behavioral experiments, behavioral activation, and self-monitoring. Additionally, the theory derives from behavioral and cognitive psychological models of peoples’ behavior that consist of theories of abnormal and normal development, and psychopathology and emotion theories (Robertson, 2010).
The standard interventions for cognitive behavior therapy involve the encouragement of clients to equally participate actively in their therapy. Equally, therapists should maintain a process of guided-discovery where clients are able to understand themselves. Similarly, the therapy assists clients learn expertise that will enable them to cope effectively with future adversities. Additionally, the theory assists clients to be accountable for their behavior and the manner in which they perceive others and themselves (Robertson, 2010). As such, individuals are able to look for alternative actions and perspectives that could be of use to them. The therapy is also evidence-based talking rehabilitation that attempts behavioral and cognitive change through concentrating on a client’s personal problems, history, and world views.

Similarities and Differences between Behavioral Theory and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

These approaches are similar because they emphasize that an individual can be taught and learn on how to change his/her behavior. Equally, both approaches stress that the aim of a therapist is to help clients realize that they are powerful and capable of selecting positive behaviors and thoughts. However, behavioral theory gives more emphasis on observable behavior instead of inner cognitive processes. While cognitive behavior therapy focuses on both behavioral and cognitive psychological models of peoples’ behavior that consist of theories of abnormal and normal development, and psychopathology and emotion theories.

Motivational Interviewing

Motivational interviewing was described for the first time in 1983, however, it was until late 2008 that Rollnick and Miller came up with a clear definition. They described motivational interviewing as a person-centered, collaborative procedure of guiding to bring about and strengthen motivation for transformation. According to motivational interviewing most individuals have conflicting inspirations for change and frequently waver in their degree of ambivalence and motivation (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). Standard interventions for motivational interviewing permit clients to express their uncertainty openly so that they can be guided to a satisfactory resolve of their contradictory motivations. This is done with the objective of facilitating anticipated behavioral changes. Additionally, the client is assisted to make personal decision to change instead of being pressurized by external forces so as to change. Furthermore, a practitioner should express empathy, develop transparency, support self-efficacy, and avoid arguments when dealing with any client (Coon & Mitterer, 2008).
Similarities and Differences between Behavioral Theory and Motivational Interviewing Both approaches stress on a collaborative technique when working with clients. Equally, both approaches focus on dealing with specific behaviors or problems of an individual so as to achieve effective results. Motivational interviewing emphasizes on the impacts of self-efficacy and external factors on behavior change, which are also central in behavioral theory. One of the differences is that behavioral theory asserts that behavior change and learning are shaped by the environment, not the characteristics of a client. Motivational interviewing, on the other hand, asserts that the client is the expert and an important change agent.

Solution-Focused Theory

Solution- focused theory was founded by Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and Steve de Shazer(1940-2005). The name of the theory suggests that it is goal-directed, future-focused, and primarily focuses on identifying solutions in contrast to problems that triggered client to pursue therapy (Trepper et al., n.d). Solution-Focused therapy significantly differs from conventional approaches to treatment. For instance, the theory does not focus on problems and past failings, but on client previous successes and strengths. Additionally, the focus of the theory is on working with the clients according to how they understand their situation and what they want to be done differently (Trepper et al., n.d).
Solution-focused theory is based on the following principles: it focuses on solution-creation in contrast to problem solving; the therapeutic attention is on the desired future by the client rather than on their current conflicts or previous problems; and clients are persuaded to increase the rate of their useful and current behaviors. In this theory, therapists aid clients in finding alternatives to their current undesired behavior and cognitive patterns. Differing from behavioral therapy and skill-building interventions, solution-focused model assumes that clients already possess solution behaviors. The standard interventions for solution-focused theory include being collaborative, positive and hopeful. Therapists are expected to identify previous abilities, resources, strengths, and solutions while addressing the problem of their clients. Additionally, therapists are expected to encourage clients to focus on the intervention strategy that is yielding results.

Similarities and Differences between Behavioral Theory and Solution-Focused Theory

Both behavioral and solution-focused theory focuses on transforming the behavior of clients. Similarly, they emphasize on learning new skills and facts. However, the two theories significantly differ. For instance, Behavioral theory focuses on examining behaviors, cognitions, problematic feelings, and interaction. Solution-focused theory, in contrast, helps clients in developing their desired future vision. For this reason, the theory focuses on solving problems, amplifying and exploring related client resources and strengths.

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud is the initiator of psychoanalytic theory (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). As a theory, psychoanalytic refers to the method of treating and investigating personality disorders. For this reason, it is utilized in psychotherapy. The theory argues that the things that individuals experience in their childhood can significantly contribute to the manner in which they later conduct themselves as adults. According to Freud arguments, the mind is divided into two parts: the unconscious and the conscious mind. Through the unconscious mind, individuals are prompted to make specific decisions despite the fact that they do not recognize the decision on a conscious level. Standard interventions for psychoanalysis include clinical, cultural, and scientific intervention.

Similarities and Differences between Behavioral Theory and Psychoanalysis Theory

Both the two theories utilize distinct research techniques and methods. For instance, Freud made use of various techniques such as dream analysis, free association, Para-praxes, resistance, and transference. According to these research techniques, behavior is more than what is observed on the surface. For this reason, it is important for therapists to delve deeper into their patient’s psychological underpinnings that underlies their behavior. Behavioral theory in contrast utilizes methods to assess the relationship between stimulus and response and their impact on behavior (Waiten, 2008). Despite these differences, they share some similarities. For instance, both theories aim to find the truth as well as explain behavior. Thus, both behavioral theory and psychoanalysis theory are concerned with similar things. However, the manner in which they approach these things significantly differs. For example, both are interested with human behavior but one approach builds around opinions while the other ignores completely people’s opinion.

Theory Integration

Cognitive behavior therapy integrates with behavioral theory because it focuses on external features that change behavior of an individual. External features like skills training, exposure therapy, behavioral experiments, behavioral activation, and self-monitoring.

References

Coon, D. and Mitterer, O. (2008). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. London: Cengage Learning.
Harmening, W. M. (2010). The criminal triad: Psychosocial development of the criminal personality type. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
Robertson, D. (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (cbt): Stoic philosophy as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London: Karnac.
Trepper, T. et al. (n.d). Solution focused therapy: Treatment manual for working with individual research committee of the solution focused brief therapy session. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from <http://www.sfbta.org/research.pdf>
Vito, F. and Jeffrey, R. (2012). Criminology: Theory, research, and policy. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Waiten, W. (2008). Psychology: Themes and variations. London: Cengage Learning.

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WePapers. (2020, December, 27) Good Example Of Essay On Major Counseling Theories Comparison Paper. Retrieved January 21, 2022, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-major-counseling-theories-comparison-paper/
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