Good Example Of Technological Achievements Of Renaissance, Industrial Revolution And The World Wars Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Discovery, Penicillin, Society, Industry, Revolution, Steam, Journalism, Human

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/11/11

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The scientific and technological discoveries were the locomotive of human society evolution. The period of Renaissance, the industrial revolution and the technological breakthrough of the twentieth century were stipulated by industry-changing discoveries. The paper reviews the most significant of these discoveries that altered the course of history and contributed to further development of society.

TYPES OF DISCOVERIES BEING MADE

Renaissance. One of the most fundamental discoveries of the Renaissance belongs to J. Guttenberg who invented the printing press. According to Man in 1453 Guttenberg manufactured a movable metal type and printed around one hundred copies of the bible. The invented equipment has substituted time-consuming and labor intensive process of producing hand-made books. As a result the number of books in Europe has increased from thirty thousand to over a million in the next several decades and stimulated development of other means of communication.
The Industrial Revolution. The invention of steam powered engine has made the industrialization process possible. The first industry-applicable model of the steam engine, being discovered in 1712, was patented by Roebuck and Watt only in 1769 (Lira). The engine was rapidly diffused among different production industries, railway and water transportation, causing rapid economic growth.
The period of World Wars. One of the most prominent inventions of the first half of twentieth century was the discovery of penicillin. Penicillin was accidentally devised by Alexander Fleming in 1928. At that time the consequences of pneumonia, syphilis or even influenza could be lethal. Penicillin became the first antibiotic drug discovered that could cure these diseases.

THE IMPACT OF THESE DISCOVERIES ON THE SOCIETY

Renaissance. The invention of the print press has resulted in the communication revolution and development of science. The human knowledge was mostly based on church postulates which were often mistaken. Moreover, only the Church had the monopoly to publish books. The propagation of print literature has altered the medieval believes providing access to new scientific discoveries. According to Man, the printing press has weakened the role of the Church and religion itself. The discovery of printing press gave birth to fiction writing, advertising and news making industries.
The Industrial Revolution. The adaptation of steam power in transportation industry has changed the course of human history. The research performed by Edquist and Henrekson revealed a significant boost in productivity in different industries due to the expansion of railroad. The extended railway communication has benefited to the economic growth by linking remote economic units. The trade turnover has increased by several times due to the improved logistics. The developed railroad network has become an indicator of countries’ prosperity level. On the other hand, new destinations were discovered which stimulated long-distance travels. The railway contributed to the establishment of new settlements and growth of human population. The steam powered trains and ships were one of the first steps to the world globalization.
The period of World Wars. By the end of the Second World War penicillin was called the ‘miracle drug’. According to Kalvatis the distribution of penicillin has significantly reduced the number of deaths during the war by thousands. The discovery of penicillin has revolutionized the pharmaceutical sector. Many diseases considered severe or even fatal, could have been treated without any hard after-effects. The overall level of health care has significantly increased which put up the quality of social security on a higher level.

THE IMPACT ON TODAY’S SOCIETY

Renaissance. Contemporary society is often called the ‘information society’ as large groups of people are involved in the process of production, exchange and retention of information. The invention of printing press was the first step allowing people to easily exchange the information and knowledge. Even in terms of the digital revolution print sources still maintain their important role in the process of information turnover.
The Industrial Revolution. Nowadays the railroad remains an important traffic artery and prior mode of transportation in many countries due to its reliability. The railroad is vital to the economy as it provides cargo transportation within many industries (e.g. mining). Approximately eighty percent of global railroad network was constructed during the nineteenth and early twentieth century.
The period of World Wars. The discovery of penicillin helped save many lives and encouraged the implementation of antibiotics in different fields of medicine. However, recent researches proved that antibiotics destroy our immune system and their usage should be cut down to minimum. Despite penicillin and other antibiotics are still widely used in course of medical treatment, the healthcare industry is in search of safer drugs.

CONCLUSION

In terms of the paper we have assessed the breakthroughs of different periods, which have strongly affected the course of human society development. The print press and steam engine have stimulated the communication revolution and contributed to the globalization processes. The discovery of penicillin has extended the life expectancy and protected people from many external threats. It needs to be stressed that these discoveries caused further evolvement: the internet replaced hard copies of books and newspapers; steam engines were substituted with more efficient internal combustion engines and eco-friendly electric motors; and antibiotics constantly evolve in response to bacteria evolution. Therefore, these discoveries have determined the further direction of human society development.

Works sited

Man, John. "The Third Revolution." Gutenberg: How One Man Remade the World with Words. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. 312. Print.
Edquist, Harald, and Magnus Henrekson. "Technological Breakthroughs and Productivity Growth." Institute for Research in Economic History of Stockholm School of Economics, 1 Jan. 2006. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. <http://swopec.hhs.se/hastef/papers/hastef0562.pdf>.
Lira, Carl. "Biography of James Watt." 21 May 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. <http://www.egr.msu.edu/~lira/supp/steam/wattbio.html>.
Kalvaitis, Katie. "Penicillin: An Accidental Discovery Changed the Course of Medicine." Healio. 1 Aug. 2008. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. <http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/news/print/endocrine-today/{15afd2a1-2084-4ca6-a4e6-7185f5c4cfb0}/penicillin-an-accidental-discovery-changed-the-course-of-medicine>.
"Alexander Fleming Discovery and Development of Penicillin." American Chemical Society. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. <http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/flemingpenicillin.html>.

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WePapers. (2020, November, 11) Good Example Of Technological Achievements Of Renaissance, Industrial Revolution And The World Wars Research Paper. Retrieved June 14, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-technological-achievements-of-renaissance-industrial-revolution-and-the-world-wars-research-paper/
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