Good Pathophysiology Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) – Article Review Example

Type of paper: Article Review

Topic: Medicine, Nursing, Disease, Health, Study, Drugs, Treatment, Education

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Published: 2020/12/09

Article(s) Review

Abstract
The topic of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology has recently drawn a considerable attention of scientists around the world. This paper is dedicated to analyzing the viewpoints presented in different articles regarding IBS, the psychological comorbidity associated with the illness and the USA guidelines for drug treatment of the IBS condition. There is provided a summary of the essential information found in the articles, analysis, comparison/contrast with similar articles along with discussion including specified topics. Read (2013, p. 538) explains, “Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a term given to an otherwise unexplained long term illness that is characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating and bowel irregularity, which might either be diarrhoea or constipation, or fluctuate between the two.” [Sic] The scientific value of the articles is also connected to the field of pathophysiology of the IBS condition.
Key words: IBS, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, pathophysiology, IBS condition.

Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The research by Dainty, Allock and Cooper (2013) specifically intended using a small sampling exploring the feasibility of a qualitative methodology for measuring the psychological illness as a comorbidity of those patients suffering from the extreme cases of IBD. This study looked at how exploring the complexities arising with the deterioration of the quality of life of those with acute IBS psychologically developed further illness, as there exists little information in this aspect of the comorbidities experienced by those suffering from the disease with the outcome of the semi-structured study deemed appropriate. Findings also looked at the implications for further study intended for the specific purpose of exploring as described by Dainty, Allcock, and Cooper (2014, p. 27) as, “ the patient perception and experience of concomitant psychological illness, which would help researchers develop effective interventions for patients with IBS.”
The article by Chang, Lembo and Sultan (2014, pp. 1149-72) on the U.S. current for drug treatment guidelines for IBS provides evidence-based comparisons of the most effective of the commonly applied drugs one to the other as well to placebo. The compilation of extensive literature in this area of treatment of IBS proves impressive as applicable “ to patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for IBS with constipation and IBS with diarrhea and are divided into ‘strong’ and ‘conditional’ recommendations.” [Sic] Further, the information connects to the guidelines development by the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) compiling the plethora of IBS research directed at the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification of IBS symptomology evaluation.
Review and analysis of the article by Dainty, Allock and Cooper (2013) looks at the claims, in which there is little literature existing – on qualitative studies of the psychological impact of patients with IBS experience connected to the deterioration of the quality of life. The implications as suggested seem credible that more in depth similar studies would look at determining the kind of intervention treatment needed developed for addressing this identified comorbidity to the IBS sufferer.
As emphasized in the article by Chang, Lembo and Sultan (2014), the guidelines prove important assisting both health professionals and patients in more rapidly identifying what drug is best suited to the symptomology of the patient individually. The fact the article points out how the GRADE centered guidelines by AGA directly apply to those IBS patients meeting the diagnostic requirement with either diarrhea or constipation designated as strong or as conditional giving specific recommendations for the drug therapy proves pragmatically beneficial to treating the patient in a timely manner.
Since the authors point out, the recommendation makes it clear that the massive compilation of the source materials for the recommendations does not give any particular emphasis on specific drugs connected to the intensity of the symptoms experienced by the IBS-afflicted patient. The implication leads to a need for further studies that would determine if this kind of treatment provides desirable outcomes with limited side effects or additional co-morbidities. At the same time, by Chang et al. (2014, p. 1148) conclusion, this “ interesting reading ” further suggests it lacks depth in areas that provide assistance to such nations as the UK, where the typical treatment of IBS is diet changes.
Exploration for other literature directly related to the article by Dainty, Allock and Cooper (2013) does not exist readily on a regular academic search as reported by the authors of the report. However, there are numerous published studies of emotional co-morbidity accompanying IBS patients, including anxiety and depression. Other literature speaks of the IBS afflicted co-morbidity emotional issue of the deterioration of the quality of life (Mason, 2014). At the same time, another study by contrast and somewhat comparative provided by Zang et al. (2014, p. 47) provides yet unexplored domains with animals for creating similar symptomology of, “Patients with IBS also suffer from emotional anxiety and depression.” This article describes the intent of investigating the levels of “IBS-induced spontaneous pain and behavioral anxiety.” The assessment of these symptoms in adult mice provided the research with feedback that showed symptom activity in the “prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex and amygdala.” The contrast of this study to the others gives clinical comparison of behavior of the mice induced with IBS clearly providing valuable insights to the co-morbidity effects of the disease on emotions ergo with effects on psychological implications for deterioration of the quality of life of human patients suffering from IBS.
The study by Canavan, Card and West (2014, pp. e106478) focuses on the guidelines for treatment and care of patients with IBS including drug interventions. They considered how, “little evidence exists regarding risk of organic gastrointestinal conditions following diagnosis of IBS and how such risks vary over the long term. This study assesses excess incidence of coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and variation with age and time after IBS diagnosis.” Their guidelines were according to UK Clinical Practice Research Dataset. Their research was not restricted to just interventions of drug therapies and their outcome looked at the current patient care guidelines (including drug interventions).
Further comparison contrasts the study by Bischoff et al. (2014, p. 189), with focus not only on the regulatory aspects of drug treatment but at the standing fact the continued debate on defining terminology connected to the accumulated data on IBS assessment, treatment (drugs), and prevention specific to overdoses. Their study determined the importance of drug regulations as a causal factor aligned to their study.
Overall, the article by Dainty, Allock and Cooper (2013) adds another dimension to the co-morbidity characteristics associated with IBS and implies the nature of the research methodology specific to the qualitative approach, which is a significant contribution for consideration of further research as the recommendation of the outcome pointed out. While the subject of the research is indeed an overlap of recognized emotional and depressive illnesses that accompany the IBS disease in patients afflicted with the condition experience as a result of the deterioration of the quality of life of the patient having access to pronounced studies focusing on the qualitative data roof a larger sampling from several studies would indeed add to the field of pathophysiological aspect of providing appropriate interventions beyond what exists now. Thus, this analysis concurs with the authors’ recommendation their findings indeed warrant further study.
Clearly, in review of the articles substantiating the emotional stress with consequential psychological outcomes as comorbidity factors of the IBS disease, the value of further qualitative research would add the already lack of substantial literature as a body in understanding and administering appropriate interventions, treating the psychological umbrella over the emotionally framed anxiety and depression typical among those suffering the disease.
Review of the summary by Chang, Lembo and Sultan (2014) and the analysis of this particular article and investigating comparative and contrasting articles proved enlightening because the fact remains there indeed, remains debate about IBS causal factors, treatments that include diet and drugs. This article’s most significant point is how the information provides the way drugs used treating IBS react one to the other. Lettered and licensed medical practitioners continually learn from the ongoing research about IBS and as any healthcare professional understands while treatment of any disease may have typical patient response nonetheless every patient should have individualized treatment.
The entire medical profession view of IBS (according to every piece of literature cited in this review and the previous) as a commonly diagnosed disease proves an interesting issue due to the fact there is so little research defining it other than it is an inflammation of different degrees of severity leading to the application of specific drug treatments and types and this also depends on the individual patient outcomes. In choosing review of this particular article, the subjective decision considered how drugs are a medical tool. When considering the IBS disease and the gaps in understanding the definitive cause then drug treatment becomes a band aid rather than a means for eliminating the disorder. The fact research on this disease and on the drugs effectively used in treating the symptoms continues harboring huge gaps in resolving the disease proves problematic from a subjective perspective and induces questions as to why more research finding preventative measures does not take place remains a personal pragmatically a conundrum.

References

Bischoff, S. C., Barbara, G., Buurman, W., Ockhuizen, T., Schulzke, J. D., Serino, M., & Wells, J. (2014). Intestinal permeability–a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC gastroenterology, 14(1), 189-214.
Canavan, C., Card, T., & West, J. (2014). The Incidence of Other Gastroenterological Disease following Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the UK: A Cohort Study. PloS one, 9(9), e106478.
Chang, L., Lembo, A., & Sultan, S. (2014). American Gastroenterological Association Institute Technical Review on the Pharmacological Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology, 147(5), 1149-1172.
Dainty, A. D., Allcock, N., & Cooper, J. (2013). Study of irritable bowel syndrome and co-existing psychological illness. Nurse researcher, 21(4), 27-31.
Mason, I. (2014). Supporting community patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Journal of Community Nursing, 28(1), 28-33.
Zhang, M. M., Liu, S. B., Chen, T., Koga, K., Zhang, T., Li, Y. Q., & Zhuo, M. (2014). Effects of NB001 and gabapentin on irritable bowel syndrome-induced behavioral anxiety and spontaneous pain. Molecular Brain, 7, 47-62.

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