Good Research Paper On Weather Anomalies
Global climate change is one of the greatest economic and environmental threats of the planet. It is central to the future of the world’s coasts since the rising sea level caused by global warming amplifies coastal erosion, the melting of ice caps and glaciers and the destruction of ecosystems. The phenomenon of global changes in the climate relate to the increase in the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Human activities produce eight billion tons of carbon dioxide every year. Since the potential risks of climate change are serious and the fossil fuels that contribute to it are important to the world economy, it is common to hear strong opposing views about climate change . Weather anomaly is a deviation in the weather, climate, temperature and precipitation over a period in a given region from the average mean of the region over the past thirty years.
Weather is different from climate. It is a chaotic system, which involves looking at short term events, while climate is a long-term average of weather. While the temperature of any single place on the earth can vary greatly, the average temperature of the earth is quite constant throughout the year. Anomalies arise when change in a few degrees of the global average temperature causes extreme changes in climate. Some of the famous examples of weather anomalies are polar vortex in North America, heat waves in Australia and Slovenia, and snow in Vietnam . There has also been an immense increase in the heat waves and precipitation all over the world in the recent times. The weather anomalies and extreme weather events happening all over the world indicate the fingerprint of global climate change, which requires immediate attention.
There is a huge difference between weather anomalies and normal weather conditions. When compared to the average levels of precipitation, Canada, eastern United States, Russia, the entire arctic region and northern Europe received extreme levels of rainfall drenching the streets . Forest fires are a consequence of weather anomalies. Increase in global temperatures, drying forest soils, longer fire seasons and changes in the time and size of melting winter snow accumulations have resulted in an increase in the size and frequency of forest fires. The recent example of weather anomaly is the rise in temperature and heat waves in the region of Western Australia. While the average temperatures of the region lie around 30oC, the current levels of mercury have already reached the 50o mark . The phenomenon is unusual and scientists explain the reason for such extremities in the weather as a side effect of global warming.
Weather anomalies have the potential to transform rain forests into arid deserts. They have the capacity to distort the flow of waves in the air and water. The distortion in turn causes unseasonable weather in several parts of the globe. The extreme changes in temperatures caused by weather anomalies cause various adverse effects to both the human beings as well as the wildlife . In human beings, weather anomalies play a major role in the onset of diseases due to sunstroke and cold waves. Scientists have already predicted that the weather anomalies will increase in the following years due to an increase in the global temperatures caused by an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
The risks of weather anomalies would accelerate in the mid-latitude areas, where the troposphere governs the variables of weather, such as precipitation, temperature, pressure and clouds. Volcanic activities have indirect effects on global climate change. Volcano-tectonic processes are important in controlling the long-term global climate change that the relatively short-term effects of volcanic eruptions . The obvious effect of volcanoes on the climate change is that most of the continents are constantly moving over the face of the globe across the latitudes and longitudes causing changes in the climate. The building of barriers by the volcano-tectonic processes cause blocking and deflection of major oceanic circulation systems, resulting in major climate changes. The ingress of warm currents into polar latitudes increases snowfall in the Polar Regions leading to reduced insolation and global cooling.
The amount of population leaving their current place of stay due to weather anomalies has been increasing day by day. Estimates record the annual displacement of over 25 million environmental refugees out of which over 18 million refugees belong to the continent of Africa. Scientists expect the number to increase to 200 million in the next fifty to hundred years . Since it is evident that weather anomalies have a strong impact on the agricultural activities, the agricultural sector is the one that would face the worst consequences. Weather anomalies influence the levels of production of food, land resources, other assets, such as structure and infrastructure and natural ecosystems, which are integral to agricultural production . Decrease in the food production as a result of weather anomalies would increase the dependence on alternate sources of food, thereby increasing the cost of commodities.
Drought is another major anomaly of weather that has a negative impact on the human life. It is common in both developed as well as developing countries. It causes several social as well as financial consequences to those who are dependent on farming for their living. On a health perspective, weather anomalies significantly influence the survival of the mankind as the human body does not have the potential to withstand huge extremities of temperatures . Skin cancer due to radiation is the primary consequence of health. Other consequences of weather anomalies, such as extreme temperatures in the Polar Regions cause the extinction of polar animals. Changes in the arctic temperatures cause hurricanes, storms, floods and heavy snowfalls in the northern hemisphere. Thus, weather anomalies would eventually lead to environmental degradation.
International relations play a crucial role in reducing global warming; however, the global-scale institutions available to implement and enforce the agreements concerning global change are often weak or non-existent . Many aspects of the global climate change from the definition of the problems to the assumptions about their causes and mitigating strategies have differential effects on the countries at an international level. Although national governments represent their countries in international environmental negotiations, they have certain restrictions as they are not entirely free to formulate policies. Moreover, the ratification of the international environmental agreements cannot guarantee that the successful implementation of the environmental policies as industries, courts and interest groups often find sufficient leeway to delay and circumvent the implementation of international obligations at the domestic level .
There are several countries that deny abiding by the demands of a strong international treaty to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere since the domestic constituents prefer a weaker treaty. The creation of an international climate change regime involves the creation of a public good as well as the establishment of rules for mutual restriction in order to avoid a mutually detrimental outcome. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of the problem, the international climate change regime is still under construction. The United States and the European play a central role in guiding the pace and tone of international climate negotiations . Governments can succeed in ratifying international environmental agreements if they actively campaign for them.
In global climate change negotiations, it is a common scenario that the developing countries whose governments are less effective and whose domestic constituencies do not view climate change as a salient issue participate in the international negotiations in exchange for the industrialized world’s commitment to negotiate on economic development . Hence, the immediate challenge for the world countries and political leaders is to find the courage to put the future of humanity ahead of their own short-term economic interests. There are several economic factors that influence the global climate change. Local economics of climate change largely relate to the economics of greenhouse gases. Ecotaxes continue to merit their expanded role in the reduction of global temperatures and are effective instruments of environmental policies .
Increased economic freedom is the best way to promote cleaner energy in the developing countries. Economic freedom positively impacts economic growth and a major focus on the economic growth is a surer path forwards in addressing climate change. Policies, such as the Kyoto Protocol are not a step forward, but a step backward as they impede economic growth with virtually no positive environmental benefits . Local economies are extremely sensitive about the costs of climate change as their entire policies depend on the argument that costs are unbearable. Since the damage caused by global climate change and its associated problems are very high, it is mandate that the local constituencies cooperate with the national and international bodies in reducing the damage. Thus, it is the responsibility of each individual to act wisely in reducing the global warming and protecting the planet from further damage.
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Hannam, P., & Burgess, M. (2015, 01 19). Extreme Heat: Near-50 Degree Tops Forecast for Remote Regions of Western Australia. Retrieved 01 31, 2015, from The Sydney Morning Herald: http://www.smh.com.au/environment/weather/extreme-heat-near50-degree-tops-forecast-for-remote-regions-of-western-australia-20150119-12tavc.html
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Sr., O. H., Pilkey, K. C., & Fraser, M. E. (2011). Global Climate Change: A Primer. Duke University Press.
Vidal, J. (2014, 02 25). World Begins 2014 with Unusual Number of Extreme Weather Events. Retrieved 01 31, 2015, from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/feb/25/world-2014-extreme-weather-events
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