Organizational Behavior Essay Example
Organizational behavior is the manner and the way in which the organizational and organizational employees are stay connected with each other at work place. Robbins & Judge (2012) stated that there are many things that are the part of organizational behavior, like the response of employees and response of customers are also the part of organizational behavior. There are many factors that influence the acts and relations at the work place. The acts like the leadership, organizational culture, and personal objectives, and the role of individuals are also the parts of organizational behavior.
Theories and concept of organizational behavior
Organizational behavior is the fields of management and the managerial studies. This investigates that how to manage the individuals and the groups and the strictures of diversity and employment with in the organizations (Robbins and Judge, 2013).All of these impacts are to manage the resources as well as the growth of the organizations. From all of other resources, human resources are two of the most important and most effective resources and managing the needs of the individuals are the most important because they are they are unpredictable and unique in natures. To manage all the things that organizations needs is the top goal of the employees. In order to understand the human behavior with the organizations, a specific field of knowledge is developed that is called the organization behavior (Brief & Weiss, 2002).
The organizational behavior famous on the following needs of the employees of different levels. These are individual, groups and organizations.
We can also say that it is the study of people at the workplace. It is also concerned with the understanding and the needs of the employees. There are many other things that are included in organizational behavior. This includes leadership, behavior, power, interpersonal skills, communications, and the process of perceptions within the employees. If we conclude the organizational behavior in simple form there are two part of it. There are many concepts of organizations, but the most simple is that when two or more people are get together, and agree to coordinate with each other to achieve their goals, this means they are working in organization and it is born.
They are the personal attitude of the individuals; it means that when people are coordinating with each other what are the levels of their understanding. It also shows the attribute of the individuals because they are the most value able things
Theories of relevance
The industrial revelations gave rise to some important facts in which one was the division of labor. To measure these theories of relevance there are different ways to manage the things. There are some other facts and theories that are help fill in developing the full labor. The quality of organization relevant is the most important things. Here are some of the theories that are defined ;
Scientific Leadership: This is one of the oldest theory and it describe how the jobs could perform more easily and more efficiently
Human relation Approach: This approach gives the ideas about the management and increasing the productivity through research
Decision making approach: It provides the approach on decision making as well as the approaches towards the more scull decision
Neo Human Relation: It follows the structure of modern organizations and it also gave rise to many other theories like Maslow, Theory X and Theory Y and Many others.
According to theories of organizational behavior organizations can be divided into different forms. There are four different types of organizational culture which are as under:
Clan oriented cultures: Such cultures focus on mentoring, providing guidance, nurturing and doing all the things together .
Adhocracy oriented cultures: They are entrepreneurial and dynamic which focus on taking risks and innovation.
Market oriented cultures: They focus on competition, accomplishment and doing the job effectively.
Hierarchy oriented cultures: They are controlled and structured with a focus on efficiency and stability .
Keeping in view the above cultures we can estimate that the organizational culture being followed in the Northrop Grumman is clan oriented culture. This kind of cultures behaves in stiffer ways as compared to other cultures and employees are having less chances of participation.
Organizational behavior plays a vital role in development of the organizations. There are many challenges arising and managers face those challenges. It is also the responsibilities of the managers to act as the wisest persona and have to come up with the issues. Northrop Grumman is an organization which provides the defense protection in the America and aerospace technology globally. The present case study is about the challenges faced by the company regarding its organizational behavior. The two major managerial problem confronted by the company are;
Close monitoring of the employees
Hinings et al., (1999) describes that managers have to maintain the exact values of people. They don’t have to focus one race, because there are employees from the different parts of the world, having the different cultural backgrounds, sexual orientations, and different age. The challenge that manager face is that how to manage this diversity and how to keep the contribution from all the employees. This distribution of organization will save the resources as well as it also participate in organizational growth. Manager must also make sure that he closely monitors this employees but this should not leading to the wasted manpower. The company has put too much strict supervision over its employees that it leads to the shattering of its manpower. The employees are not in close coordination with each other. And thus it is lacking a huge backdrop in case of its manpower.
Goic (2013) stated that organizational structure in synergy with its culture ensures high business performance. When culture and structure works in close collaboration with each other they develop the business and its performance. It has its negative side too, sometimes cultures and structures impact the business negatively.
Participatory approach is essential in the organizational behavior. This is also related with the close monitoring. Mentoring is an essential part of the organizational behavior but it should not be such that creating harms in the innovation and development. Mayo (2003) states that, Boredom and repetitiveness of tasks led to reduced motivation. Motivation is improved through making employees feel important, giving them a degree of freedom to make choices and acknowledging their social needs.
In the organization Employees cannot fully participate in the development activities due to fear of making mistakes. There is always fear of strict punishment on onset of any mistake and this behavior hinders the participatory approach. Corporate scandals reach in public in very less time. Successful organizations also have to police to face and maintain the ethical behavior with the employees and with the organizations as well. The challenge in ethics that manages face are that how to manage this and convey the organizational ethics to the employees of the organizations. The most important thing in ethics is to control the interest of the employees. Managers have to see that how they can maintain the persona interest of the employees, and how employees have to keep their interest behind the organizational interest.
Some time it becomes the integral part to make communications inside and outside more effective. Communication at work place becomes more effective when it is manages according to the needs of the environment. Although technology had bring a change in organizational work now but managing this will becomes the challenge for the organizations.
Fredrick Taylor has developed scientific management where he mentioned four principles of management. The key objective of this theory is to improve efficiency of economy and productivity of labour. The four principles include:
Leaders use scientific method to study and work and to determine the most efficient way of performing particular tasks rather than using ‘rule of thumb’ or simple habit and common sense.
Workers are matched by the leaders to their jobs based on ability and motivation and trained to work at best by the leaders rather than simply assigned to any specific job.
Leaders monitor performance of work and instruction though supervision is provided to ensure that the most efficient way to doing task is followed by the workers.
Leaders allocate the task between other leaders and workers which makes leaders spend time for planning and training, allowing the worker to perform task efficiently.
As suggested by Contingency theory of leadership first proposed by Austrian psychologist Fred Edward Fiedler in his book “A contingency Model of Leadership effectiveness” in 1964. This theory emphasizes on leader’s personality at the same time the situation that the leader goes through. This theory outlined two managerial styles:
Fiedler measured the style of management with the Least Preferred Co- Worker Scale.
The leaders scoring high on this scale are relationship motivated and those scoring low are task motivated (Northhouse. 2007)
There is direct relationship between employee participation and organization progress (Jones, 2010). It could be explained from the following examples. The informal culture boosts up the performance of the organization. For example, the culture of PepsiCo is informal, and if both the organizations including PepsiCo and ‘Food Standards Agency’ are analyzed, then one can easily point out that PepsiCo is bigger than the ‘Food Standards Agency’. The reason behind the success of PepsiCo is the easy going culture. Such a culture promotes the relationship among the employees. They enjoy working with each other. This aspect enhances the knowledge and information sharing aspect which leads to the progress of the organization. Employees worked more freely as compared to Northrop Grumman and thus they proved to be more productive and fruitful for the organization.
The company should motivate the employees. Motivation is an essential part of employee development. Mayo’s research resulted in laying a foundation for the Human Relations Movement. In his book The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization he has included the Hawthorne studies (Mayo, 2003). Mayo suggested that work motivation is promoted by factors like;
Showcasing interest in others
Involvement of people in decision making
Assuring the wellbeing of people
Ensuring that the work is non – repetitive and, and not focused only on making money.
It is one of the key and the most important thing with organizational behavior. If the organization maintains their globalizations pace they will be able to maintain their growth. Once the organization will maintain the globalizations, the organizations that are local will become the global stage one day. As this become the challenge that how to maintain the globalization. The global managers maintain the organi9zational culture, also they try to compete the globalizations, and this will becomes the challenge for the organizations.
Solutions for organizational behavior challenges
These are the various ways which make up the basic and foundation of organizations behavior. The very step is based on assessing the discrepancies in the organization, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses as well. This activity develops the base for the strategic planning. Strategic planning is an extended phase of strategic management process. In the initial stages of this phase, the core values like mission visions and values are developed. If these are already developed, then a GAP analysis is conducted to review the disconformities (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2012). Different strategies are discussed for eliminating the issues, and then a suitable strategy is adopted after the consensus of the management. The next step is the deployment of the strategy selected in the previous phase. The resources are scrutinized, and then the required resources are allocated to the project. After it, the entire plan is communicated in the organization. The most critical and important stage is to implement the strategy in that organization as for it was developed. It is crucial, because it involves the change in the original situation. Often the things turned out to be different in this stage, and it can impact on the entire planning. Moreover, another reason for the importance is that in this stage we can know the importance of formulated strategy. The last phase of strategic management is the measurement and evaluation stage. When the strategy is formulated and implemented in the last step we evaluate that the strategy is working or not.
The biggest thing in managing the people are managing the diversity, it becomes the challenge to manage the diversity. Because there are different people in organizations are working from daft part of the world with different background. To manage these diversity are the most import things. A good solutions to this diversity related issue is that never select too many people from same background. While in interviews with new employees always keep these things in mind that you don’t have to give benefits to a same cultures, or same ethnicity. Always minting a good tanning and development session with in the organizations to maintain the growth as well as managing the resources of the organizations diversity. This sometimes becomes the challenge for the organizations to maintain diversity but to meet this challenge is also necessary.
It is necessary to maintain the ethical relations among the employees; this is also a challenge because some time these resources are also hard to manage. Ethical responsibility can be with or outside. To cultivate some good ethic, always provide employees with compensations as well as the fair decisions amount work. Always let the employees know about these responsibilities and keep them aware from their role. Trainings can also play their parts.
The easiest solution to maintain the pace of globalization with your organizations is to let your employees know. They what they can do, and what they don’t have to do. This is how it becomes the valuable. Globalizations means competing the world, and sometimes it becomes the hardest things to manage. A simple solution to manage globalizations is that never put extra pressure and work burden at you employees.
In the light of above discussions we can recommend following ways for Northrop Grumman to effectively mitigate the prevailing challenges in their organizational behavior.
Always keep the compensations levels at good scales within the employees. The mangers have to do analysis about the employees who need compensations.
Training and development can play integral role because these will also or day to day activities.
Trainings also increase the understanding of each other among the employees.
Leaderships are also plays they vital role, because sometimes they becomes the sources of improvement and act as the motivational factors.
Internal communications is also another good things which will increase the sources and productivity within the employees. Put pressure of successful communications.
Diversity management is key role, managers have to try that they can get more effective and vital in selecting the right people. Managers have to maintain diversity.
Always respect your employees because they are the value makers, and they are also most difficult to manage. The key values to manage are the needs of the employees as well as they demand respects.
Employees should be motivated to be a part of team.
These are the few recommendations they are necessary to maintain the perfect organizational behavior. When Northrop Grumman Corporation makes these this with full concentrations, it means that they are successful in making them as perfect organizations.
Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M. (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual review of psychology, 53(1), 279-307.
Buchanan, D. A., & Huczynski, A. (2004). Organizational behaviour: an introductory text (p. 28). Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Goic., S.(2013). Organizational structure, organizational dynamics and organizational culture. A research from Croatian Enterprises.
Hitt, M., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. (2012). Strategic management cases: competitiveness and globalization. Cengage Learning.
Hinings, C. R., Greenwood, R., & Cooper, D. (1999). The dynamics of change in large accounting firms. Restructuring the professional organization, 131-153.
Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change. Pearson.
Mayo, E. (2003). The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York, NY: Routledge.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2012). Organizational Behavior 15th Edition. Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013). Essentials of Organizational Behavior. Pearson Higher Ed.
Tseng, M. L. (2010). Implementation and performance evaluation using the fuzzy network balanced scorecard. Computers & Education, 55(1), 188-201.
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