Research Paper On Research Focusing On Drug Treatments
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The CBT model aims at addressing different disorders; the applicability entails predisposing the factors and the precipitating entities, hence, aligning with dysregulation in functions such as the behavioral system, the cognitive system, and the effective system (Molly & Lara, 2009). The CBT process entails, the case conceptualization, time limitation and solution focused, structured and directive, individual or the group format, the sound therapeutic relationship essential, and educative and skill building process (U.S National Library of Medicine, 2012). The model is largely applied towards transforming drug addicted patients to more productive citizens in relation to enhancing the respective outcome through integrating such aspects. It stipulates how under the individual based sessions the participants responded positively compared to the group sessions where low outcomes were recorded. The assumptions attached to such aspects indicates the favorability of the used treatment programs; Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and the 12 Steps program that tends to favor individual based sessions compared to the group based outcomes. These reflect different implications as reflected in the analysis below. The Motivational interviewing refers to a technique that enables the helper to change process and also accept the client. The model is based on an interaction with the substance using patients other that just offering therapeutic entities to the clients (Wadsworth, 2004).
Under the type of therapy based in relation to the three therapy treatments, the differing finding stipulates implications in relation to the favorability of the treatment in relation to addressing addiction or use of cocaine or heroin. The 12-step program recorded a high mean compared to the CBT with MI with such differing outcomes reflected in the 95 percent confidence interval in relation to lower the bound and the upper bound. The 12 steps group program treatment is largely embraced on the recovery of drug based on a different reason. Such reasons include the effectiveness where millions of people have already recovered from the use of these methods (Fiorentine, 1999). Another major advantage of the method has been linked with the universal and the free use of these methods globally. Thus, a notion of 12 Steps program being more favorable compared to the CBT with MI can be derived in relation to addressing some of the issues attached. However, under the standard care, much higher findings were recorded compared to the others (12 Steps Programme and the CBT with MI) (Fiorentine, 1999). The implications reflected on the findings stipulate the differing outcome as recorded by the participants on the 12 months findings. Thus, a notion stipulating the favorability of the standard care compared to the other treatment therapy can be availed Smedslund et al., (2011). The researcher demonstrates how the use of CBT with MI reflects positive outcomes compared to other models based on the study conducted examining such aspects.
There are different arguments on the outcomes of psychology based treatments for drug addiction. The study focused on examining treatments on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, 12-Step programme Group & Individual.
Participants: This involved 144 participants, sex 100 males, and 44 females with 2 dropping out during the session. The participants have prolific and other priority offender status and testing positive for heroin or cocaine used during their arrest.
Materials: The materials of the study involved 12 therapists running the secession with qualified to degree standards and having a minimum of three year's experience. The study involved all the participants taking part in a voluntary rehabilitation procedure following their release from the incarceration.
Design and Procedure: The participants in the study took part either: 90 minutes weekly in closed meetings in the groups of 4 to 8 people with two Counselors or 45 minute weekly individual sessions with one Counselor. They were involved and attended the session for one year with the outcomes measured at 1 month, 6 months & 12 months. These results reflected the respective outcomes recorded by the respective participants on individual or group based outcomes. The study avails findings on research of 12 months based on the recorded data on the outcomes of the participants based on the respective treatment programs.
Based on the findings, one way between the subjects was conducted of the recovery from heroin and cocaine on session and the type of therapy attached to each outcome in relation to ANOVA approach. There was a significant difference on the effect of group and individual session in relation to the mean of the group being lower compared to the individual based sessions (p>1.6). Similar differences were recorded on the type of therapy on the use of the drug for one year with 12-step programme at 5.208 mean, CBT with MI at 4.292. The standard care 8.261 with the 95 percent confidence intervals recording lower bound of 4.473, 3.557, and 7.510 respectively. While on the upper bound 5.943, 5.027, and 9.012 respectively on the types of therapies; thus, different implications are reflected based on the depicted outcomes above.
The analogy attached to the depicted analysis reflects the different outcomes on the use of different types of sessions and types of therapy in relation to one-year drug use. Based on the findings conducted in different areas, the program is essential based on the marginal outcomes recorded on the recovery. Such merits attached to the effectiveness of the program can be linked on to the high mean, upper, and lower bonds in relation to the study findings. Thus, the study findings tend to support the findings indicating how the 12 steps is effective in relation to addressing addiction hence offering feasible recovery outcomes. Study by Florentine (1999), involving 330 patients in twenty-six Los Angeles outpatient aimed at examining the effectiveness of the treatment on substance abuse. The study evaluated patients from the 12 steps based treatment with other enhanced treatment programs and discovered that the patients in 12 steps treatment programs had a higher percentage of recovery while reducing cost compared to the other attached program.
The findings align with the study aimed at examining Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine, and Methamphetamine (Carroll & Onken, 2005). The model have been used towards preventing relapse in the drinking problem but was later adapted to Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies. This was based on the fact the theory that in the occurrence of maladaptive behavior patterns such as substance abuse, the learning process normally plays a critical role. According to Molly & Lara (2009), the skills learned by an individual via the cognitive behavioral approaches are likely to remain even after the completion of the treatment program. The study by Molly and Lara (2009) examining Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Adult and Illicit Drug Users: A metal Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, the researchers examined 53 controlled trials of CBT. The aim of the study was towards availing overall picture of CBT treatment efficacy while identifying treatment or client factor predictive of the CBT effect magnitude. Based on the study findings, the use of CBT with a large and diverse sample of studies under the rigorous conditions of the establishment of efficacy; the effects were recorded strongest with the users of marijuana. However, based on the notion the treatment was not compared with other treatment programs, differing findings are likely to emerge.
The notion attached to the findings in relation to the use of the treatment aligns with the fact that the treatment tends to build on optimism based on the humanistic theories. The theories ensure people practice the free choice to change via a process termed as self-actualization. Thus, the model incorporated with other therapeutic approaches avails differing findings as represented in the study.
The limitations of the study were based on monitoring the behaviors of the participants outside the sessions hence the likelihood of indulging in such behaviors without the knowledge of the researcher. The implications of the use of Motivational Interviewing Therapy based on the findings aligns with the study by (Smedslund et al., 2011) examining motivational interviewing for the substance abuse. The study explored 24 motivational interviewing interventions that were compared to other non-corresponding treatments. Based on the study findings, the people having participated in the motivational interviewing approaches largely reduced their substance use compared to people using some of the other programs. Thus, the essence of the treatments programme aligns with the findings of the study hence the effectiveness of the recovery process.
In conclusion, there is different therapy treatments aimed at addressing the issue of drug addiction in the respective settings. Based on the findings and the analysis above, CBT, MI and 12 steps programme avails different outcomes in relation to the results by the participants; the findings stipulate effectiveness in the use of 12 steps program in relation to enhancing recovery of the patients from such addictions. The arguments attached to such aspects reflect on the essence of embracing such models towards addressing cases of cocaine or heroin addiction by patients. However, the use of individual-based sessions on each of the depicted therapy types seems to yield more positive results compared to the group as reflected in the finding in the study. The analogy attached to the findings stipulates some of the undertakings that should be aligned in the recovery sessions.
Berk, L.E. (2008). CBT Development. Boston, MA: Pearson. EYC.
Carroll, K.M., Easton, C.J.; Nich, C.; Hunkele, K.A.; Neavins, T.M.; Sinha, R.; Ford, H.L.; Vitolo, S.A; Doebrick, C.A.; and Rounsaville, B.J. (2006) The use of contingency management and motivational/skills-building therapy to treat young adults with marijuana dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(5):955–966, 2006
Carroll, K.M.; and Onken, L.S. (2005). Behavioral therapies for drug abuse. The American Journal of Psychiatry 168(8):1452–1460, 2005
Carroll, K.M.; Sholomskas, D.; Syracuse, G.; Ball, S.A.; Nuro, K.; and Fenton, L.R. (2005). We don’t train in vain: A dissemination trial of three strategies of training clinicians in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73(1):106–115, 2005.
Fiorentine, R.(1999). After drug treatment: Are 12-step programs effective in maintaining abstinence? American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 25(1):93-116, 1999
Molly M. and Lara R. (2009). Cognitive Behavioral Treatment with Adult and Illicit Drug Users: A metal Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Alcohol and Drugs Journal http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2696292/
Seal M. (2009), Jean Piaget; Simply Psychology. http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Smedslund et al., (2011). Motivational Interviewing for substance abuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: 2011, 5, Art.No.:CD008063. http://findings.org.uk/PHP/dl.php?file=Smedslund_G_1.txt
U.S National Library of Medicine (2012). CBT with MI, and 12 Steps group programme
Wadsworth, B. J. (2004). Piaget's theory of cognitive and affective development: Foundations of constructivism. Longman Publishing.
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