Teenage Pregnancy Impacts On Teen Mothers Research Papers Examples
“Teenager mother” – this status terrifies both parents of young girls as well as young girls themselves. Teenage girls quite often want to become adults as soon as possible, they quickly get into relations with boys and feel themselves as true adults. But when they face the reality of adult life such as pregnancy they understand that they are simply not ready for adult life. The problem of early pregnancy is quite accurate nowadays. Thus, when young girls learn that they are waiting for a baby they just don’t know what to do and ask their friends or parents for help and advice. In fact, every girl should know beforehand what the possible impacts of early pregnancy are and how it may affect them. Therefore, it is possible to mention five main impacts on teen motherhood: educational, physical, psychological, economic and future career. That is why the knowledge of all the possible consequences of early pregnancy may help to prevent such a phenomenon.
It is also important to mention the physical impacts on teenage mothers. Thus, they are negative for both: a mother and her baby. Unfortunately, but quite often early pregnancy endangers girl’s health. Thus, pregnant teenagers are at a greater risk to suffer from serious complications such as premature delivery, toxemia, anemia, and others. Indeed, pregnancy is usually associated with higher rates of illness and death. Young teenager’s body and organism is simply not ready for pregnancy. Moreover, early pregnancy may be extremely harmful for babies and their health. Thus, in the article “Adolescent pregnancy” it was stated that “infants born to teens are 2-6 times more likely to have low birth weight than those born to mothers age 20 or older” (“Adolescent pregnancy”). Therefore, teenage mothers are at a higher risk of their infants possible deaths during first years of life. Quite often low birth babies may suffer from immature organ systems as well as mental retardation. It usually happens that teen mothers don’t fully understand their position and the fact that they need to care about someone else except for themselves. Thus, they may have unhealthy habits such as smoking or drinking and in such a way they may “place the infant at a greater risk for inadequate growth, infection, or chemical dependence” (“Adolescent pregnancy”). That is why it is evident that teen pregnancy may negatively affect a mother and her child.
It should be also noted that physical impacts on teen mothers stand closely with the psychological ones. It is not a surprise that most teenagers are not ready for pregnancy both physically and mentally, that is why their pregnancy period is usually accompanied by multiple stressors. Multiple studies revealed high percentage of anxiety and depression during the first trimester. Thus, it was revealed that “on average, there was a steady linear decline in depression and anxiety symptoms across the transition to parenthood, with a rate of change of 25% and 20%, respectively, from the prenatal assessment to 12 months postpartum” (Madigan et al). Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that anxiety and depression among young mothers who are not ready for child bearing may negatively affect their infants. Thus, in the article “Negative Emotionality and Cortisol during Adolescent Pregnancy and Its Effects on Infant Health and Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity” the authors say that mothers’ anxiety may negatively affect their infants’ health. The authors claim that “infants of anxious mothers cried significantly more than infants of mothers who were less anxious” (Ponirakis, Susman, and Stifter). Furthermore, quite often teen mothers suffer from postpartum depression. Thus, they usually lack knowledge on how to raise their children and don’t know how to maintain their families. Therefore, it is evident that early child bearing may cause both physical and psychological problems.
Speaking about teenage pregnancy impacts on teen mothers it is also important to mention possible economic impacts. As it was mentioned above, teen mothers rarely finish school and don’t know how to maintain their new families. Thus, a report by General Accounting office states that “42% of all families receiving AFDC at any given time were begun by a mother who was under the age of 20 when she gave birth” (Aber, Brooks-Gunn, and Maynard). Teenage mothers rarely have full-time jobs and are stably informed. They usually don’t earn much and on depend on welfare. As a result, when teenage girls give birth to a child they rely not on themselves but usually on government or public assistance. They usually don’t receive help from their babies’ fathers. Thus, “only one third received financial assistance from the child’s father (30% received child support, 4% lived with the father)” (Aber, Brooks-Gunn, and Maynard). Moreover, a great number of teen mothers don’t receive any help from their parents as they simply leave their houses. They lose the connections with their friends and have to learn on how to rely on themselves and how to be grown-ups. Thus, Rebecca A. Maynard claims that “only about 30 percent of single teen parents live with adult relatives” (Maynard). These data serve evidence that shows why young mothers hope to receive help from the government. Unfortunately, but they often suffer from poverty. And what is worse, there is a high probability that their children may appear in the same situation and face poverty as well. It is a vicious circle that is hard to break.
Considering all these facts it is possible to say that young mothers have lower chances to build their future careers. When teenage girls find out that they are pregnant they it is unlikely that they will finish their education. As it was already mentioned, only 23% of young mothers complete twelve years of their formal education. As a result, without a diploma their chances to find a well-paid job are quite low. In fact, it is hard for them to find any job at all. Without receiving any help from adults teenage mothers cannot allow themselves to look for a full time job as well. In such a situation young mothers mainly search for help from the government and are on the welfare for quite a long time. It is possible to say that they lack motivation and don’t see any future perspectives.
Aber, J. Lawrence, Brooks-Gunn, and Maynard, A. Rebecca "Effects of Welfare Reform on Teenage Parents and Their Children."Teenage Births: Outcomes for Young Parents and Their Children 5.2, Critical Issues for Children and Youths (2008): 1-28. www.scaany.org. Dec. 2008. Web. 5 Apr. 2015.
"Teen Pregnancy." Family First Aid. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2015.
"Adolescent Pregnancy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 12 Sept. 2011. Web. 05 Apr. 2015.
Sheri, Madigan, Wade Mark, Plamondon Andre, Vailancourt Kyla, Jennifer M. Jenkins, Michelle Shouldice, and Diane Benoit. "Course of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Thetransition to Parenthood for Female Adolescents Withhistories of Victimization." Clinical Key. N.p., 23 May 2014. Web. 06 Apr. 2015.
Ferre, Zuleika, Mariana Gerstenblüth, Máximo Rossi, and Patricia Triunfo. "The Impact of Teenage Childbearing on Educational Outcomes." EBSCO HOST. Tennessee State University College of Business, 2013. Web. 6 Apr. 2015.
Ponirakis, Angelo, Susman, J. Bizabeth, and Stifter, A. Cynthia. ‘Negative emotionality and Cortisol during Adolescent Pregnancy and its Effects on Infant Health and Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity”. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 16 Sept. 1996. Web. 9 Apr. 2015
Maynard, A. Rebecca. Kids Having Kids. n.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2015. http: // www.urban.org