The Effects Of Shifting Time Zones Or Doing Shift Work Include All Of The Following Except Essays Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Sleep, Information, Time, Family, Stimulus, Operant Conditioning, Behavior, Parents

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2021/01/05

PSYC 101: Introduction to Psychology

EXAM 2
Circle the correct answer for every Question below, then answer the rationalization below each question in your own words, from your own schemata:

a. hallucinations. d. increased risk of mistakes.
b. decreased productivity. e. impaired attention & concentration.
c. irritability.
You eliminated one answer. What would it take to cause the thing you eliminated to occur? Explain in your own words in one small paragraph:
Although hallucinations are not caused by having one’s sleep patterns interrupted by shift work or a change in time zones, they are caused by long periods of sleep deprivation, which often befalls shift workers who are having trouble adapting to their new schedule or whose schedule is not fixed and changes often, thus preventing them from settling into a sleep routine.
2. REM sleep may be characterized by
a. decreased adrenaline. d. more frequent and vivid dreams.
b. decreased brain activity. e. slow & regular heart rate.
c. sleepwalking.

You chose one correct answer. In which stages do each of these other four phenomenon occur?

i) slow and regular heart rate- begins to decrease in stage 2
ii) sleepwalking - stage 4
iii) decreased brain activity - begins to slow in stage 1 and 2, slows significantly during stages 3 and 4
iv) decreased adrenaline - stages 2 - 4
3. When we first fall asleep after being sleep deprived, our brain attempts to catch up on the
missed REM sleep before the missed deep sleep. This is called

REM sleep deprivation.

deep sleep deprivation.

REM sleep rebound.

paradoxical sleep.
How long does it take to get caught up after being sleep deprived? Explain in your own words: The brain begins attempting to make up for lost REM sleep the next time that you sleep, by spending more time in REM sleep throughout the sleep cycle than normal. The longer that a person has been sleep deprived, the longer it will take for them to catch up on REM sleep, but it generally can be achieved within 2-3 nights of increased REM sleep following sleep deprivation.
4. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors are most likely to occur during ________ sleep.
a. REM d. stage 3
b. stage 1 e. stage 4
c. stage 2

What is sleepwalking? What phenomenon is occurring?

Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder in which someone performs a variety of behaviors such as walking and talking in their sleep. They can be difficult to wake and have no memory of their behavior when they wake up. Sleepwalking occurs when someone is deep in the non-REM stages of sleep, when the body is not yet paralyzed as in REM sleep, but is experiencing the delta waves that of a very deep sleep. In this way, they can be physically active without being awake.
What are night terrors? What phenomenon is occurring?Night terrors occur in deep sleep during stages 3 and 4, the deepest stages of sleep. Night terrors cause physiological symptoms of fear such as an increase in breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, etc, that cause someone to awaken repeatedly, often sitting up, screaming, and/or crying. Because they are in the deepest stages of sleep and not conscious, the sufferer does not remember what caused the fear, unlike nightmares which occur during REM sleep and can be remembered upon waking.
5. Individuals who experience periods of time during the night when their breathing stops may be diagnosed with
a. narcolepsy. c. insomnia.
b. sleep apnea. d. somniloquy.
What is the treatment for this? Is it curable? Explain these answers in your own words: There are many treatments for sleep apnea. The most common is the CPAP, or Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, machine. The CPAP keeps the airway open during sleep using air pressure delivered through a mask over the mouth and nose. Although quitting smoking and losing weight can help decrease the risk of sleep apnea, there is no cure yet for sleep apnea.
6. According to Freud, dreams are
a. continuations of the mental processes occurring when the person falls asleep.
b. an expression of our unconscious desires and needs.
c. not very meaningful.
d. combinations of random neural signals.

What do YOU think dreams are? Explain in your own words:

I think that dreams are the way that our minds process the sensory information and experiences we have had that are stored somewhere within our memory; I think our minds are attempting to make sense of, interpret, and store the information in our unconscious mind.
7. The three stages of memory (not memory storage) in sequence are:
a. short-term memory, long-term memory, and retrieval.
b. encoding, storage, and retrieval.
c. encoding, retrieval, and forgetting.
d. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Explain each stage in your own words:

A) Encoding refers to how individuals change sensory input into information that can be stored in our memory. Common ways to encode input are visual and acoustic (picture and sound); i.e., reading a vocabulary word over and over or repeating a phone number to ourselves out loud.
B) Storage refers to how we store information in our mind for future use- how long we remember it for, where it is stored, etc. Information can be stored in both the short- and long-term memory.
C) Retrieval refers to how we access the information we have stored in our memory. The way that we access short and long term memory is often different.
8. Lacey can remember how to ride a bike and how to drive a car. These are examples of
a. procedural memory. c. episodic memory.
b. implicit memory. d. semantic memory.

Why can’t Lacey remember the information on her vocabulary test last week? Tell me in your own words:

Lacey most likely cannot remember the information on her vocabulary test last week because it was stored in her short-term memory, and is subject to decay, which means a memory fades with time. Also, if Lacey simply studied the vocabulary words in order to remember them for the test and did not try to assign meaning to the words and incorporate them with other concepts, they were not encoded as deeply, which would make them more likely to be subject to decay.
9. Ramone watched an episode of American Idol and saw 12 singers perform. Later his wife asked about the performers, and he could only remember the last 3 singers who performed. This is an example of
a. a flashbulb memory. c. the primacy effect.
b. episodic memory. d. the recency effect.
What if he had remembered one of the earlier singers because she reminded him of an old girlfriend? What kind of memory would that have been? Explain:
That would have been episodic memory, which is a type of long-term memory that deals with events in our lives, such as relationships, as opposed to procedural memory, which is how to do things, and semantic memory, which is general knowledge.
10. Alexander went to the phone to call his parents and accidentally dialed their old number instead of their new number. This is an example of
a. the primacy effect. c. proactive interference.
b. the recency effect. d. retroactive interference.
He remembered the number with area code easily in three sections of three/three/four numbers. What is this process of remembering called? Give me another example of when you use this process?
This process is called elaborative rehearsal, which helps us to remember new information by putting in the same structure as older, familiar information. We use elaborative rehearsal when EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
11. When students answer multiple choice exams, the instructor is using which measure of retrieval?
a. recall b. recognition c. relearning d. None of the above
This exam type does not involve much higher order or critical thinking. What type of exam questioning would require a student to think more and draw from their own schemata? Explain:
Essay questions require higher order thinking. Essays require students to not just recall information they have learned, but to reconstruct events or concepts they have learned. They must analyze the question, recall the relevant information, evaluate the concepts they are attempting to explain, and reconstruct the information that they have learned in order to respond to the question.
12. Many people can recall vivid details about what we were doing and who we were with when we heard about the terrorist attacks on 9/11. This is an example of
a. imagery. c. the primacy effect.
b. state-dependent learning. d. flashbulb memories.
You may have been too young to remember 9/11. Do you have a very vivid memory from Hurricane Rita? What is it?
I remember being in my house with all the windows boarded up, and the sound of the wind shaking and rattling the boards, while listening to the rain pounding the entire house and feeling the house actually creaking and shaking in the wind.
13. In Pavlov’s study of classical conditioning, the dog’s salivation to the bell was the
a. unconditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned response.
b. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response.

What would the dog’s initial salivation to the meat be considered?

an unconditioned response

What would the initial presentation of the meat powder be considered?

unconditioned stimulus

What about the presentation of the bell?

when the bell was presented it was a neutral stimulus
14. Your cat comes running when she hears the can opener because the sound of the can opener has been paired with “dinner time” for several months. The sound of the can opener is a(n)
a. unconditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned response.
b. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response.

What would the cat’s running to the sound of the can opener be considered?

a conditioned response - it has learned to associate the sound with the unconditioned stimulus (cat food)

What would dinner time without the can opener normally be considered?

an unconditioned stimulus evoking an unconditioned response; the cat is hungry and wants food therefore will respond positively to the food without any conditioning
15. The weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone is a process called
a. generalization. c. spontaneous recovery.
b. discrimination. d. extinction.

Give me an example of this phenomenon in “real life.” (Not our fishing example from class):

Every time a little boy throws a temper tantrum, his mother showers him with attention to quiet him- he has learned to elicit a conditioned response from his mother, who is reinforcing his behavior with attention. If, when the little boy throws a temper tantrum, his mother completely ignores him, not providing any attention, he will eventually decrease his temper tantrums because his conditioned stimulus (tantrum) is no longer eliciting a desired, conditioned response (attention).
16. After “Little Albert” was conditioned to fear a white rat, he later became afraid of a stuffed animal and other white, furry things. This is called
a. generalization. c. spontaneous recovery.
b. discrimination. d. extinction.

Give me an example of this phenomenon in “real life.”:

A young child is on vacation with her parents. They go to a beachside restaurant and she eats shrimp for the first time in her life. She has an allergic reaction to it and spends a night in the nearby emergency room, receiving several injections and being put on a breathing tube to keep her airway open. For the rest of her life, she refuses to eat any type of fish and becomes anxious and nauseous in restaurants that serve fish, even though her doctor has assured her that she is not allergic and could safely eat any fish that is not a shellfish without consequence.
17. Common examples of classical conditioning in our everyday lives include all of the following EXCEPT
drug abuse and addiction.
taste aversion (after food poisoning).
fears and phobias.
rewards and punishments.

Why did you eliminate the answer you chose?

Classical conditioning deals with conditioning responses or behavior through different stimuli, whereas operant conditioning relies on rewards and punishments to change behavior. Also, classical conditioning usually refers to more reflexive responses (i.e. dogs salivating over food, and then a bell associated with food), where operant conditioning refers more to voluntary behaviors such as staying seated in the classroom and being rewarded with extra recess time, or getting out of one’s seat often and being punished by reducing recess time.
18. When Johnny brought home bad grades on his report card, his mother scolded him and told him he had to do extra chores for two weeks. This is an example of
a. positive reinforcement. c. positive punishment.
b. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment.

Explain why you answered positive or negative, and explain why you answered reinforcement or punishment:

“Positive” refers to when something is added, and the goal of punishment is to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring. Johnny’s parents added extra chores as a consequence of bringing home bad grades, with the aim that the extra chores will decrease this undesirable behavior (achieving bad grades) in the future.
19. When Johnny helped his grandmother clean out her attic and mow her yard, his parents removed his extra chores. This is an example of
a. positive reinforcement. c. positive punishment.
b. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment.

Explain why you answered positive or negative, and explain why you answered reinforcement or punishment:

“Negative” refers to when something is taken away, and “reinforcement” aims to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring. Johnny’s parents are taking away their previous punishment in hopes it will encourage him to repeat this desired behavior in the future.
20. Using the information from your SLEEP LOG, your textbook, your PPT notes, and our discussion in class, describe for me, in one very robust paragraph, what you learned about YOURSELF with regard to the following concepts: CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, LARK OR OWL, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, DREAMS, SLEEP STAGES, SLEEP CYCLES, ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, MEMORIES, AND LEARNING.

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