Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Smoking, Health, Medicine, Cigarettes, Women, Heart, United States, Disease

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2021/01/03

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Abrams, David, B. (2014). The health consequences of smoking-50 Years of progress: A Report
of the Surgeon Genera.l The Schroeder Institute. Atlanta, GA: U.S. (pp.2-6).
The Surgeon General gave a report on the 50 years of research on the progress in curbing smoking and what effects it has produced on the individuals who have been smoking. The progress, however, is in decline because the situation has gotten worse where over 480,000 people lose their lives each year and 20 million have been lost, on the whole. Various other sorts of diseases have emerged like bronchitis, blindness, cancers of the bladder, larynx, pharynx stomach, liver and various other organs as well. It also causes impotency and infertility. (Abrams, 2014). The cigarette is a defective product since its repercussions are extreme for consumers. Moreover, burning tobacco releases harmful substances that are not appropriate for consumption. Also, addiction caused by smoking is the greatest harm it has.
Baron, John A. Vecchia Carola La, and Levi Fabio. (1990). The anti estrogenic effect of cigarette
smoking in women. AJOG. (pp. 502-514). Vol. 162.
The harmful effects of smoking are not confined to organs such as the lungs and the heart. Smoking also harms the other internal organs and systems. The hormonal system in women is also affected by smoking. A study revealed that women who smoked cigarettes were actually estrogen deficient. They incur a naturally early menopause and have more chances of having osteoporotic fractures because of lack of calcium absorption by the bones. (Baron et al., 1990). Such women also have higher risks of getting hip bone fractures as compared to women who have never smoked. In younger women, it can also increase infertility and in pregnant women smoking can cause stillbirth and abnormalities in the fetus.
Ezzati, Majid, Henley Jane, Thun, Michael J. and Lopez, Alan, D. (2005). American Heart
Association. Role of Smoking in Global and Regional Cardiovascular Mortality. (pp. 489-497). Harvard School of Public Health. Boston.
Smoking is a habit that brings along with it a cluster of diseases out of which cardiovascular disease is the most rampant among smokers. Moreover, smoking-incurred cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and has the highest mortality rate amongst smokers. Data collected from the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study II and the World Health Organization Global Burden of disease mortality database was used as the basis for collecting the estimates of deaths caused by ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, stroke and other heart-related diseases due to smoking amongst men and women. (Ezzati et., 2005). It was estimated in the year 2000 that out of 1.62 million deaths caused by heart attacks; 11% were those caused by smoking. Also, ischemic heart disease accounted for 54% of heart attacks caused by smoking. Therefore out of every ten deaths caused by heart problems, one was caused by smoking. This proved that smoking was a major cause of cardiovascular mortality.
Lesmes, George R, Donofrio, Kathryn H. (1992). Passive Smoking; the medical and economic
issues. AAIM. (pp.38-42). Illinois USA.
Not only is the smoker himself at great risk of smoking, it is also people who are in the company of the smoker at risk of their health due to cigarette smoke. Since the 1970s, it has been debated that the effects of passive smoking are just as harmful as those of active smoking. It is also somewhat controversial whether passive smoking is overstated and unclear as a cause of health risk due to smoking or not. However, a report by the Environmental protection Agency has revealed that passive smoking kills over fifty thousand smokers in a year and it also largely contributes to air pollution. (Lesmes and Donofrio, 1992). It irritates those who are asthma patients or have breathing problems. Moreover, the smoke is not good for heart patients. The article focuses on the measures that need to be taken by the government to create smoking zones specific for smokers.
Macnair, Patricia. (2015). Major diseases caused by smoking. Health advice. Hearst Magazine
UK. London.
Along with the other diseases caused by smoking, smokers are also at a great risk of incurring problems like high blood pressure, hypertension and are prone to get strokes. The eyes can become red and itchy. Heavy smokers are likely to get weak vision and also run a high risk of getting cataracts. Smoking also harms the gums and teeth, causes yellowing and bad breath as well as swollen gums. It can cause ulcers of the mouth and stomach because the smoke is acidic. Not only that, smoking caused paleness of skin and lowered the amount of Vitamin A in the body. Even Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes are harmful to people. (Macnair, 2015). This reveals that smokers are at a high risk of suffering from internal as well as external health problems of the body which can lead to complications and malfunctioning of the body’s systems.
Pub Med. (2002). Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and
economic costs--United States, 1995-1999. CDC. (pp.14).
Smoking has many harmful effects on the body which are evident in the form of diseases incurred by smokers. A report presented by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gave a detailed analysis of the number of mortalities and burden on the economy caused by cigarette smoking. Between the years, 1995-99 CDC reported the annual mortality rates caused by smoking, the years of potential life lost, medical expenditures over smoking the cost of smoking for adults. (PubMed, 2002). The results showed that in these four years, smoking caused over four hundred thousand premature deaths and an approximated $157 billion annual health0related economic loss. If appropriate measures for battling smoking could be implemented among smokers or potential smokers, then life and revenue, both could be saved.

Xu, Xiping, Dockery, Douglas W., Ware, James, H, Speizer, Frank, E, and Ferris, Benjamin G

Jr. (1992). American Review of Respiratory Disease. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Rate of Loss of Pulmonary Function in Adults: A Longitudinal Assessment. (pp. 1345-1348). Vol 146.
Smoking has deleterious effects on the lungs of a person, and they can greatly be affected by the continued use of cigarettes by an individual. In a study conducted, thousands of men and women were selected from all over the U.S to get rated for their pulmonary function in relation to smoking and how it would increase in their adult life. The rate of acceleration in function loss was in relation to the cigarettes smoked each day. The estimated increase in the rate of loss of function was 12.6 ml/yr per pack in men and 7.2 ml/yr in women. (Xi et al., 1992). The more that people smoked, greater the loss of pulmonary function was recorded. Also, the study showed that if one quit smoking then the pulmonary function could be redeemed in a small amount but continuing it will result in more loss.

References

Abrams, David, B. (2014). The health consequences of smoking-50 Years of progress: A Report
of the Surgeon Genera.l The Schroeder Institute. Atlanta, GA: U.S. (pp.2-6). Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from http://www.legacyforhealth.org/content/download/4428/62627/file/Abrams.SurGenReport.50thAnniv.2.5.14.FIN.pdf
Baron, John A. Vecchia Carola La, and Levi Fabio. (1990). The anti estrogenic effect of cigarette
smoking in women. AJOG. (pp. 502-514). Vol. 162. Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from
http://www.ajog.org/article/0002-9378%2890%2990420-C/abstract?cc=y
Ezzati, Majid, Henley Jane, Thun, Michael J. and Lopez, Alan, D. (2005). American Heart
Association. Role of Smoking in Global and Regional Cardiovascular Mortality. (pp. 489-497). Harvard School of Public Health. Boston. Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/112/4/489.short
Lesmes, George R, Donofrio, Kathryn H. (1992). Passive Smoking; the medical and economic
issues. AAIM. (pp.38-42). Illinois USA. Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from http://www.amjmed.com/article/0002-9343%2892%2990626-M/abstract
Macnair, Patricia. (2015). Major diseases caused by smoking. Health advice. Hearst Magazine
UK. London. Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from Macnair, Patricia. (2015). Major diseases caused by smoking. Health advice. Hearst Magazine
UK. London.
Pub Med. (2002). Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and
economic costs--United States, 1995-1999. CDC. (pp.14). Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12002168
Xu, Xiping, Dockery, Douglas W., Ware, James, H, Speizer, Frank, E, and Ferris, Benjamin G
Jr. (1992). American Review of Respiratory Disease. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Rate of Loss of Pulmonary Function in Adults: A Longitudinal Assessment. (pp. 1345-1348). Vol 146. Retrieved (28 Mar, 2015) from http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm/146.5_Pt_1.1345#.VRabmY5lddg

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