Free Essay About Drug Abuse And The Poly Drug Username Of Student
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The term analgesics means “without pain”. People are using analgesics to relieve pain.
Narcotic analgesic drugs are natural (plant and animal), semi-synthetic and synthetic origin which has a significant analgesic effect with a primary effect on the central nervous system and its ability to cause psychic and physical dependence (addiction).
The classification of this group is determined by the nature of their actions. They are divided into agonists, i.e. painkillers, and their antagonists synerhoantahonisty (partial antagonists), they can be systematized according to sources: plant, animal, synthetic.
Classification of narcotic analgesics agonists
1. The plant origin:
a) galena prоducts (pоwder);
b) neоhalenоvi drugs (оmnоpоn);
c) alkalоids (mоrphine hydrоchlоride, cоdeine phоsphate).
2. Animal Оrigin ( derivatives, endоrphins).
3. Synthetic and semi-synthetic (etylmоrfin hydrоchlоride, meperidine, Promedolum, fentanyl, tramadol, pirytramid).
Synerhoantahonisty (pentazocine hydrochloride and lactate, yalorfin hydrochloride, buprenorphine, butorphanol).
Antagоnists (naloxone, naltrexone).
Narcotic agents can be divided into 4 categories:
Codeine and morphine – natural alkaloid of оpium.
Synthetic derivatives of morphine such as heroin.
Synthetic agents which remind the structure of morphine.
Narcotic antagоnists which are used as antidotes for overdose of narcotic analgesics.
The majоr pharmalоgical action of analgesics is in the brain and medulla of the central nervous system. One more effect is on the smooth muscle and glandular secretion of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but the drugs appear to interact with specific receptor sites to interfere with pain impulses.
Because of acting on the nervous system of human it leads to unexpected effect. It can be dizziness, drowsiness, problems with breathing, physical or mental dependence.
There are some narcotic analgesics, such as codeine, Darvon, acetaminophen, meperidine, hydromorphine, morphine, oxycodone. It can be sold in many formats – in tablets, suppositories, injections, syrups. These drugs are sold by prescription, moreover, a new prescription requires for each new supply, as refills are banned according to federal regulations.
Of course, anyone who uses narcotic analgesics or any other drug, over the long time becomes dependent on the narcotic. A person can be dependent physically or mentally. The worst thing about drugs is that with time body needs larger doses to relieve pain. To avoid it people have to use these drugs, according to prescription only.
Older people and kids are very sensitive to Narcotic analgesics and can have serious problems with breathing after using them. Narcotic analgesics increase alcohol effects. If persona taking analgesics, he/she should not use alcohol drinks.
All the people who are going to use narcotic analgesics have to consult with a physician about dosage and methods of ingestion. Pregnant women have to say about pregnancy to the doctor as their future kids can become dependent on opioid analgesics and some drugs can pass into the breast milk.
Prescription drug misuse is the fastest growing drug problem in the Unites States. Since 2003 more overdose death have involved narcotic analgesics than cocaine and heroin combined. Rate of narcotic analgesics abuse and overdose death are highest among men, persons aged 20-64 years, non-Hispanic whites, poor and rural populations.
Cannabis is an ancient hallucinogenic drug. It extracts from the hemp plant. This plant can be found growing wild, almost anywhere. The term “marijuana’ usually refers to the leaves of the plant and flowering tops.
Despite of the fact that marijuana was banned more than 50 years in the United States, recent figures show that marijuana is rated among cereal, corn and soybeans as one of the leading cash spores grown in terms of dollar volume of sales.
Marijuana became the most widely used controlled substance in United States, because of low-cost and ease of cultivation what makes the marijuana most available.
Near 20 years ago, it was classified as a narcotic and simple ownership punished similar to heroin. With scientific investigation more available and dangers of this drug disputed, penalties have been insensibly reduced on few states. The drug has several current accepted medical purposes.
Marijuana is mostly packaged for street sale in small amounts in clear plastic bags, then rolled up, and ties or taped. The price for street selling differs wildly; it depends on the sale location, origin and quality of marijuana.
Marijuana can be smoked, vaporized, eaten, brewed and taken topically, but the majority of users prefer to smoke it.
The cannabis called “weed”, “ganja”, “hash”, “pot”, “grass”, etc. Usually it is spread in cigarettes. Smoking releases tetrahydracannabinol or THC (intoxical chemical in marijuana), it gets into the blood through the lungs. There are different ways to smoke marijuana like bongs, bubblers and glass pipes.
Marijuana can be used in food; it is often a choice of people who are using medical marijuana. Apart from “pot brownie” edible marijuana can be used in different types of foods, for example candies, ice-cream or in butter.
Also, cannabis can be used in liquid form; it can be added to different drinks like milk, soda, alcohol or even brewed as a tea. Hashish it is a pitch made of the concentrated material of the plant. Other types include oral sprays, topical oils, and capsules.
Marijuana brings pleasure to the same centers in the brain that are directed by cocaine, heroin or alcohol. Marijuana can generate a feeling of euphoria (high) because of releasing the chemical dopamine. It depends on quality, quantity and way of consumption of the drug. When it is used in food, it can take hours to release the dopamine. When it is smoked or inhaled, the feeling of euphoria is immediate.
Different changes can appear after using of this drug, some users facing with emphasized sensory perception, colors seem to be more vivid, noises seems to be louder. Sometimes marijuana can cause increased appetite. There are a variety of impacts of the drug, it depends on the strength of the drug, quantity and how much time person was using it.
Other effects include:
Paranoia (feeling of panic, fear, anxiety);
Amplified heart rate;
Decreasing of ability to manage tasks which require coordination;
Troubles with concentration;
Lower interest in perform tasks.
When person coming down from the euphoria, feeling of depression or tiredness can appear.
When use of marijuana begins in the teenage age, it can have great influence on the development of brain, including lower activity of the brain, lack of neural fibers in some areas, smaller size of the hippocampus that controls memory and learning functions. The drug has long lasting impact, even after 2 years after a person gave up to use this drug his/her brain can look similar to the brains of schizophrenics.
Smoke of marijuana can induce some of the same respiratory issues faced by smokers of tobacco. It can be daily cough, phlegm production, bronchitis, different lung infections. Marijuana can raise heart rate by 20% to 100% in the nearest time after smoking and the effect can continue up to 3 hours.
Users who are trying to give it up facing with irritability, sleeplessness, cravings, a lower appetite, anxiety – the same symptoms of those who are trying to give up any other type of drug or alcohol. Marijuana can reduce production of sperm in men and disrupt a woman’s menstrual cycle.
Some countries are mass struggle against the use and distribution of the drug. Some countries and several states legalized marijuana. It attracts tourists from all countries where drug use is strictly punishable by law. This effect can be to create a certain image of the country and especially the government should think about whether you need such an image of the country.
Along with "hysteria of the war against drugs" in the modern world is growing critical attitude to laws prohibiting recreational drugs such as marijuana. In Germany, Italy, Switzerland, France and Australia already has active political movements whose requirements range from the decriminalization of marijuana (the decriminalization of its consumption and growing) to its full legalization (free commercial sale like alcohol and tobacco). In America, the idea of decriminalizing marijuana also enjoys impressive support, including even by official bodies such as the Presidential Commission on Marihuana (Presidential Commission on Marijuana). Decriminalization has been the official policy of the State of Alaska in 1976-1990, until it was abolished by referendum.
If marijuana is legalized without a special tax, the price of a unit dose will fall by at least a factor of 100, with $ 6. To less than $ 0.06. As a result of the purchase of marijuana will cost no more than the consumer purchase of other stimulants, intoxicants, including alcohol: just half a dollar a day smoker of marijuana could consume daily for 10 doses.
There is no doubt that public opinion is unlikely to approve such a strong decline in prices. Parents will object to the high availability of drugs for young people. In addition, the low cost of "grass" will be a challenge for the alcohol industry, whose products would be 10 times as much marijuana. With the legalization of marijuana has become politically acceptable, it is necessary to increase its price by special taxes or other methods of regulation.
First of all, it should be emphasized that marijuana causes less damage to society and citizens than alcohol and tobacco. The main damage from constant smoking marijuana - increased risk of respiratory diseases: according to recent studies, among those who smokes marijuana on a daily basis, the level of these diseases by almost 20% above the average. However, the damage to smokers their own health, refers to internal costs, except for the effect of passive smoking and increase the overall cost of health insurance.
More importantly, the consumption of marijuana increases the risk of accidents due to the weakening of mental activity. According to experts, those who smoke on a daily basis, "grass", this risk is 30% higher than non-smokers. It increased the likelihood of accidents and is the main mode of consumption externalities costs of marijuana.
Narcotic Analgesic Drugs Retrieved from: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Biological_Chemistry/Drug_Activity/Narcotic_Analgesi_Drugs
Analgesics, Opioid Retirieved from: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Analgesics,+Opioid
CDC Grand Rounds: Prescription Drug Overdoses — a U.S. Epidemic
Weekly January 13, 2012 / 61 (01); 10-13 retrieved from:
Drugs of Abuse – Marijuana Retirieved from:
Marijuana: Effects of Weed on Brain and Body Lauren Cox, Live Science Contributor June 23, 2014 05:35pm ET Retirieved from:
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