Free Literature Review About Multigenerational Workforce

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Workplace, Education, Literature, Generations, Students, Employee, Workforce, Breastfeeding

Pages: 10

Words: 2750

Published: 2020/11/14

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Abstract

Competition among companies has become stiff. With the advent of globalization, companies
are now looking to maximize the potentials of their workers. Diversity has been given attention since the baby boomers who have mostly contributed much to the growth of the company are now mostly fifty years old and will soon retire. Companies will be losing lots of talents and skills when they retire. In this study, we will be presenting the five generations as stated by Dan Bursch in his research and present the different characteristics of each generation. It is our aim to present their differences and understand their functions and perceptions in the workplace. This study further seeks to present different strategies that can be implemented in order to integrate, connect and assimilate all of these generations within the organization in order to bring out the best in every worker. The research was done through the use of the internet.
Individuals born between 1946 to 1964 are called the Baby Boomers. Presently they are now in their 50’s. A few years more, they will be retiring. This is the generation that comprises the biggest number of workers in the workplace. Along with this capacity, they can have a devastating effect on the companies if no alternatives will be implemented to properly replace them. They have gained skills and talents along these years and have been contributory to the growth of many companies. Hence, their absence bring a threat to the companies. This is the main issue that we want to present in this paper; how to pass on to the next generation their acquired skills and experiences before they retire. Our aim is to find strategies and analyze how to connect the younger generations to the Baby Boomers and enable cooperative and cohesive efforts. It is also our aim to be able to recommend strategies in order for all these generation mix to function smoothly and collaborately basing on all studies written by various authors.
Comperatore, E. & Nerone, F (2008, June). Coping With Different Generations
In The Workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-29.
Elena Comperatore and Frederick Nerone’s article on Coping with Different Generations In the Workplace provides a very detailed approach in analyzing and understanding the different generations in the workplace. Their keen analysis delves into the psychological and social effect of their traits within the environment. They give the reader ideas of both the negative and positive side of the Traditionalist of Veterans. They are giving value in presenting the inner side of the workers in this generation. The study explicitly presents the innate values of the Veterans. In addition, Comperatore and Nerone incorporated Jennifer Deal’s article, ‘Generational Differences” (Comperatore, Nerone, 2014, p. 26). This is very helpful to managers and supervisors. These are principles that apply to all four generations in the workplace. They further stressed the importance of communication in bringing ideas across in order “to find a common ground to honor and leverage diversity at work” (Wood, 2005, Spanning the Generation Gap in the Workplace). Comperatore is a career Service Specialist/Adjunct Professor at the University of North Georgia while Frederick Nerone is a retired dean of the Johnson School of Business at Hodges University. The article shows scholarly taste that would benefit managers and top management.
Angeline, Tay (2011). Managing generational diversity at the workplace: expectations and perceptions of different generations of employees. African Journal of Business

Management, 5(2), 249-255.

Angeline’s article was a study based on the statistics from the Department of Statistics in Malaysia. We find Angeline’s approach like a literature for the study of managers regarding employee perceptions among the different generations in the workplace. The author gives special attention on how to avoid conflicts within inter-generational employees and taking into account the uniqueness of each individual worker. The study was centered on perceptions and employee expectations. Angeline further sites the arguments presented by other authors that “any claims of disagreement arising from their age difference are supposed to be delusions and excuses to cover the dissatisfaction and bad behaviors of individuals (McCaffre (2007). The author presents the characteristics of workers in Malaysia and is similar to the United States workforce. Angeline is a Faculty of Business and Accontancy at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Bell, N. & Narz M. (2007). Meeting the Challenges of Age Diversity in the Workplace. CPA
This article offers insight into a CPA firm with four generations working together. The author primarily focuses on employees wanting flexible work arrangements. They both briefly reviewed each generation. Bell & Narz provide statistics to back their claim that employees want flexible work arrangements broken down by all employees, male and female. The article is from a scholarly journal used by CPAs. The authors provide a comparison at the end of their article regarding family/work values of Generation X and Baby Boomers. They don’t provide any in depth text material explaining what the comparison means. They failed to give the reader an indication about how does this information help employers understand their employees. The authors provide information about the advantages of flexible work arrangements but did not include any disadvantages. The authors based the study from the results of the survey from 900 respondents. It showed that the other non-Generation Y are more committed to the organization they work for and are more satisfied. The authors further emphasized that “there is direct connection between customer satisfaction, and profitability”. All of which are directly related. Bell holds a PhD in Risk Management and Insurance, Management, Statistics and hold a Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) she is a Professor Emeritus of Business at the Stephens College of Business at the University of Montevallo in Montevallo, AL. Narz also works at the University of Montevallo as an associate professor of accounting and business law at the Stephens College of Business. He is a CPA, as well as, holds a JD.
Bright, L (2010). Why Age Matters int he Work Preferences of Public Employees: A Comparison of Three Age-Related Explanations. Public Personnel Management, 39(1),
This article is a scholary study of studies on generational differences. The author is studying the validity of various studies on the multigenerational workforce. The study does a good job of finding consistency in the results of other studies. The author does point out areas where the studies analyzed are inconsistent with each other. This article primarily is centered around age/work preferences. Age/work preferences is a breakdown of how each generation prefers to work, in the areas of recognition, task meaningfulness, advancement, leadership, professional growth and monetary incentives. Blight further suggest that opportunities be given to workers of all ages to motivate them. He further argues that public managers should first find the reasons why age influence the preference of public employees before they can effectively formulate strategies. He further stated that the older and younger public employees desire different work opportunities such as job flexibility and career advancement. The author concludes that age matters for public employees in their work preferences because, “ it could result to generational difference, unequal access to work opportunities” (Blight, 2010). Leonard Bright holds a PhD in Public Administration and Policy. He is an Assistant Dean of Graduate Education; Associate Professor with The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University.
Hahn, J. (2011).  Managing Multiple Generations:  Scenarios From the Workplace.  Nursing Forum, 46(3), 119-127.  doi:  10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.002223.x

Joyce Hahn provides operational ideas for companies to implement that are experiencing

a multigenerational workforce. The author offers two real-life scenarios regarding multigenerational conflicts and provides possible solutions to these conflicts. Although
most of her article involves the nursing workforce her scenarios and solutions could apply to any industry. Hahn does an excellent job of describing ACORN. ACORN is a method to help employers meld the various generations of workers in their organization. The author does review the various generations on a general level but not as in depth as expected from this article. A better description of the generations would aid in the reader gaining better understanding of the issues companies face. According to Hahn, “communication and respect are the underlying key strategies to understanding and bridging the generational gap in the workplace” (Hahn, 2011). She also developed the five managerial strategies for managing effectively a multigenerational staff. Hahn holds a PhD in Nursing and is connected with the George Washington University School of Nursing.
Hekyer, R. & Lee, D. (2012). The twenty-first century multiple generation workforce.

Eduction & Training, 54(7), 565-578.

This scholarly article explores the issue of multiple generations in the United Kingdom (UK). The authors study the similarities, differences and overlaps of what they term a “cross-generational” workforce. This paper reviews the issues of generation diversity in the Higher Education (HE) sector of the UK. They do point out that this issue effects all industries not just HE. The authors explore the future of a multiple generation workforce and how HE can train, teach and coach companies to adapt to the changes facing them. The authors point out that HE needs to offer classes to incoming students so they are ready for a multigenerational workforce in the future. Hekyer and Lee provided a great deal of insight into the issue of a multiple generations in the UKs HE providers. The authors argued that UK workforce will be dominated by the older experienced employees as they based it on their demographic study. This article points out some industrialized countries are faced with the same issue. They both stated that the Generation Y are more willing to change jobs if they are not fulfilled because these are the generations that are ‘tech-savvy” and achievement oriented. They also pointed out that generations have a lot in common but they differ mainly on perception. Both Hekyer and Lee work in the Department of Academic Enterprise at Teeside University in Middlesbrough, UK. It is unknown what positions they each hold at the University.
Murphy, S. (2007). Leading a Multigenerational Workforce. Washington, D.C.: AARP.

This booklet was written for the American Association of Retired People (AARP).

Sherman, R. (2006, May 31). Leading a Multigenerational Nursing Workforce: Issues,
Challenges and Strategies. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues In Nursing, 11(2), Manuscript 2. doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol11No02Man02.

This scholarly article from a nursing journal gives insight into the struggles the nursing

industry is experiencing with a multigenerational workforce. The author offers excellent background regarding the various generations within the nursing industry. Sherman offers interesting strategies with real world solutions that can be instituted into any organization. The author introduces a “synergy model” to be used in decreasing conflict within each generation cohort. This model allows each generation to understand the value every generation brings to the workplace. Sherman’s assessment of the issues regarding nurses is spot on. The nursing industry is one of the first industries to experience a multigenerational workforce. This industry has been the fore runner of identifying problems and developing solutions. The author exhibits a great deal of knowledge and understanding. Sherman further stressed on leadership strategies by making an inventory of their employees and suggested that employees should be grouped to the same work expectations. He also noted the preference of the Traditionalist generation to the manner in coaching. The Veterans appreciate hand written notes, plaques and pictures with the Chief Nurse. The Baby Boomers prefer face-to face coaching. Sherman is the Director of the Nursing Leadership Institute in Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. She holds a EdD in Nursing Leadership and has 25 years of nursing leadership with the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Tannenbaum, N. (2014, May 8). Talent Management: Managing the Multigenerational
Workplace. UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School, 1-4.
Nancy Tannenbaum points out that many companies focus on recruitment and retention, when in fact, there is an increasing demand for multigenerational diversity in the work-force. Tannenbaum provides steps for organizations to aid in a more cohesive work environment. The author feels organizations should identify the similarities of each generations when recruiting, retaining and engaging employees from all generations. She thinks once addressed employers will actually strengthen an organization. She stressed the importance of management to take efforts in making employees from diverse ages understand each other’s generation and pointed out the importance of communication in order to avoid future conflicts in the workplace. The author gives a short generic list of the characteristics of the various generations. The author does not offer any “how to’s” regarding how employers can implement the steps she provides. She does introduce a Generation Z that other authors have not recognized as a generation. Tannenbaum is affiliated the the Executive Development Program at the University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School and is not a scholar in the field of Human Resources.
White, M. (2011). Rethinking Generation Gaps in the Workplace: Focus on Shared Values. UNC Kenane-Flagler Business School, 1-11.

This article offers a totally different point of view of the multigenerational workforce.

As a summary, all authors stressed that existence of four generations in the workplace. All of them agree that the Veterans or the Traditionalists value their work and are more appreciative of the personal touch. The Veterans were mostly emphasized giving justice to their efforts in making the United States a prosperous nation. There is difference in the attitude of the Generation X and Y. The Generation Y, are more ‘tech-svvy’ and are success driver but would be willing to change their job when they are not satisfied. They psychologically pride in their talents. Most of all, the authors argued that perceptions play a great part as this is the main factor that makes the generations differ from each other. In order to bridge the gap, the authors suggested the importance of communications in order for the multigenerational worders to understand each other and avoid future conflicts.

References

Angeline, T. (2011). Managing generational diversity at the workplace: expectations and
perceptions of different generations of employees. African Journal of Business
Management, 5(2), 249-255.
Bell, N. & Narz M. (2007). Meeting the Challenges of Age Diversity in the Workplace. CPA
Comperatore, E. & Nerone, F (2008, June). Coping With Different Generations In The Workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-29.
Hahn, J. (2011).  Managing Multiple Generations:  Scenarios From the Workplace.  Nursing
Forum, 46(3), 119-127.  doi:  10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.002223.x
Hekyer, R. & Lee, D. (2012). The twenty-first century multiple generation workforce.
Eduction & Training, 54(7), 565-578
Murphy, S. (2007). Leading a Multigenerational Workforce. Washington, D.C.: AARP.
Sherman, R. (2006, May 31). Leading a Multigenerational Nursing Workforce: Issues,
Challenges and Strategies. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues In Nursing, 11(2), Manuscript 2. doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol11No02Man02.
Tannenbaum, N. (2014, May 8). Talent Management: Managing the Multigenerational
Workplace. UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School, 1-4.
White, M. (2011). Rethinking Generation Gaps in the Workplace: Focus on Shared Values. UNC Kenane-Flagler Business School, 1-11.

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