Good Example Of Learning Difficulties And Mathematics Instruction: Outline Essay
2. Literature review
2.1 General overview of concepts related to teaching young children
2.1.1 Importance of engagement with children on an age-appropriate level (What Works Clearinghouse, n.d.).
2.1.2 Addressing large groups of children in a manner that is age-appropriate, engaging, and educational (U.S. Department of Education, 2013).
2.1.3 Developing good number sense and a healthy fascination with mathematics is important to good mathematical education and interest later in a child’s life. Developing an interest in math in an older child is harder than it is for younger children because of their natural sense of wonder and interest in the world and how everything works (Witzel et al., 2012)
2.2 Addressing problems associated with teaching young children mathematics
2.2.1 General problems that are associated with teaching young children mathematics—common issues with number theory, and places where many students struggle with math (What Works Clearinghouse, n.d.)
2.2.2 Getting around the idea that everyone naturally “hates math,” and teaching young children how to enjoy math instruction (Madoff, 2013).
2.3 Addressing problems associated with children with learning difficulties and mathematics instruction
2.3.1 Using a multistep approach to problem solving—especially with word problems—will help students with emotional and behavioral difficulties deal with the frustration of being unable to solve word problems (Alter, 2012).
220.127.116.11 Teachers should positively reinforce good behavior when students are on task and working hard (Alter, 2012).
18.104.22.168 When children have more severe difficulties, a direct and explicit generative strategy for teaching can be used to instruct children on the proper method for solving word problems (Swanson et al., 2013).
2.3.2 Students with serious disabilities will often have to have very specific instruction that is tailored directly to their needs (Swanson et al., 2014).
2.3.3 Visual-spatial deficits make learning some kinds of mathematics more difficult for children, as does the non-verbal learning disability syndrome; the non-verbal side of this disability makes it more difficult for children to learn mathematical concepts (Forrest, 2004).
22.214.171.124 Creating a separate space for these children to learn is a good first step to developing a working curriculum for children with non-verbal learning disabilities and visual-spatial deficits (Forrest, 2004).
2.4 Creating a classroom that encourages engagement in mathematical learning
2.4.1 Encourage children often to discuss mathematical concepts inside and outside the math curriculum; this also helps determine whether children have learning problems with math concepts early (Witzel, 2012).
2.4.2 Use concrete experiences so that children can grasp concepts more easily (Witzel, 2012) (What Works Clearinghouse, n.d.)
2.4.3 Use developmental progression to teach young children mathematical concepts (U.S. Department of Education, 2013).
2.4.4 Monitor the progress of learning early and often (U.S. Department of Education, 2013).
Alter, P. (2012). Helping Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Solve Mathematics Word Problems. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education For Children And Youth, 56(1), 55-64. doi:10.1080/1045988x.2011.565283
Forrest, B. (2004). The Utility of Math Difficulties, Internalized Psychopathology, and Visual-Spatial Deficits to Identify Children With the Nonverbal Learning Disability Syndrome: Evidence for a Visualspatial Disability. Child Neuropsychology, 10(2), 129-146. doi:10.1080/09297040490911131
Madoff, L. (2013). Getting Beyond "I Hate Math!". Educational Leadership.
Swanson, H., Moran, A., Lussier, C., & Fung, W. (2013). The Effect of Explicit and Direct Generative Strategy Training and Working Memory on Word Problem-Solving Accuracy in Children at Risk for Math Difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(2), 111-123. doi:10.1177/0731948713507264
Swanson, H., Orosco, M., & Lussier, C. (2014). The Effects of Mathematics Strategy Instruction for Children with Serious Problem-Solving Difficulties. Exceptional Children, 80(2), 149-168. doi:10.1177/001440291408000202
U.S. Department of Education. (2013). Teaching Math to Young Children. Washington D.C.: National Center for Educational Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
What Works Clearinghouse. (n.d.). Five Evidence-Based Recommendations for Teaching Math to Young Children. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Witzel, B., Ferguson, C., & Mink, D. (2012). Number Sense. Young Children.