Good Example Of Literature Review On Effect Of Chemotherapy On Lung Cancer Patients And Quality Of Life

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Cancer, Lung, Lung Cancer, Nursing, Life, Quality, Quality Of Life, Health

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2020/12/24

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Introduction 3

Statistics of lung cancer 3
Literature review 4
Conclusion 5

References 6

Introduction
Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease worldwide that starts with an uncontrollable growth in a normal lung cell that develops in tumor (Stewart & Kleihues, 2003). Lung cancer is of two types: small and non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC and NSCLC). For advanced stages, oncologists recommend chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells (Bunn & Kelly, 1998). Chemotherapy though cannot finish the cancer at all, but it can improve the quality and expectancy of life by suppressing the disease (Dean et al., 2013). This review paper focuses on the statistics for lung cancer and the effects of chemotherapy on a patients’ behavior and spirit of life.
Statistics of lung Cancer
Global cancer statistic report specified the lung cancer as a leading cancer site among men, causing 17% of new cases and 23% of total cancer deaths. The mortality among females is higher in developing countries resulting in 11% of total cancer deaths (Jemal et al., 2011; Dean et al., 2013; Bunn & Kelly, 1998). Youlden, Cramb & Baade (2008), estimated that in 2002, 1.35 million people were diagnosed, and 1.18 million people died of lung cancer worldwide. In developed countries, the prevalence of lung cancer is declining among males while situation continues in developing countries due to endemic consumption of tobacco. A report indicated a reduction of 40% in lung cancer prevalence that may be due to the awareness and control programs (Siegel, Naishadham & Jemal, 2012). The 2013 data estimation predicted 228,190 individuals suffering from lung cancer, and a death toll reaching 159,480 (Dean et al., 2013).
Literature review
The adverse effects of alkylating agent-based therapies have spread a gloom among oncologists because most of the patients (around 85%) develop metastatic diseases during therapies. It led to the pessimism about the effects of chemotherapy on cancer patients. A randomized trial based study revealed that chemotherapy can improve the survival rate and quality of life and can relieve the symptoms through suppressing disease (Bunn & Kelly, 1998).
The patients complain about symptoms intensity, and short survival led oncologists to apply chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. Various studies are conducted to investigate the effects of chemotherapy and improvement in life expectancy. Assessing the pre and post treatment effects on the basis of symptoms intensity provided significantly positive results. A comparative analysis was completed based on the intensity of the complaint, appetite, weakness, hematological and neurological performance, respiratory adequacy, cardiac disorders, and infections. The results evaluation indicated an improvement in the performance status of patients and decrease in the symptoms intensity after complete adherence to the treatment (Słowik-Gabryelska, Szczepanik & Kalicka, 1999).
According to Dean et al., sleep disturbances are common among lung cancer patients as a result of the chemotherapy. Mood disorders also influence sleep patterns that are an evident symptom of lung cancer. Through improving symptoms along with proper assessment and management sleep patterns can also be improved. A descriptive cross-sectional study of lung cancer patients indicated noteworthy differences in sleep patterns before and after therapy. These results confirmed a considerable connection between sleep and mood with quality of life (Dean et al., 2013). Chemotherapy grabbed high attention when the competency of chemotherapy was proved for increasing survival of lung cancer patients. Bunn and Kelly suggested that the response rate and improvement in survival from cisplatin-based chemotherapy led to the discovery of novel agents. Several other agents approved by FDA are Vinorelbine, Paclitaxel (Taxol), Docetaxel (Taxotere), Gemcitabine, Irinotecan (CPT-11) and Topotecan (Bunn & Kelly, 1998). Often oncologists prefer chemotherapy through combining the drug, such as Vinorelbine with Cisplatin, Paclitaxel with Carboplatin (Bunn & Kelly, 1998).
Conclusion
Most of the studies exhibit a positive response from 20 to 45% variation while relief in symptoms is observed in most of the patients. Chemotherapy for NSCLC may result in some side effects but with minor objective response rate. Many analysis and studies have acknowledged that the chemotherapy improves the quality of life in lung cancer patients even at the advanced stage of diseases. It has the potential to extend the survival of lung cancer patients by controlling the disease growth.
References
Bunn, P. A., & Kelly, K. (1998). New chemotherapeutic agents prolong survival and improve
quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer: a review of the literature and future
directions. Clinical cancer research, 4(5), 1087-1100.
Dean, G. E., Redeker, N. S., Wang, Y. J., Rogers, A. E., Dickerson, S. S., Steinbrenner, L. M., &
Gooneratne, N. S. (2013). Sleep, mood, and quality of life in patients
receiving treatment for lung cancer. In Oncology nursing forum (Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 441-
451). Oncology Nursing Society.
Jemal, A., Bray, F., Center, M. M., Ferlay, J., Ward, E., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer
statistics. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 61(2), 69-90.
Słowik-Gabryelska, A., Szczepanik, A., & Kalicka, A. (1999). [The quality of life after
chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients]. Polski merkuriusz
lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 6(31), 18-22.
Stewart, B. W., & Kleihues, P. (Eds.). (2003). World cancer report (Vol. 57).
Lyon: IARC press.
Siegel, R., Naishadham, D., & Jemal, A. (2012). Cancer statistics, 2012. CA: a cancer journal
for clinicians, 62(1), 10-29.
Youlden, D. R., Cramb, S. M., & Baade, P. D. (2008). The international epidemiology of lung
cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 3(8),
819-831.

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