Age As A Risk Factor To Uterine Cancer Research Papers Examples
Methods of early detection
Methods of early detection are also called screening and are not available to investigate uterine cancer in women. They have to wait until symptoms appear. The most common symptom among 90 percent of women is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Excessive bleeding occurs post-menopause. Though these symptoms do not always indicate cancer; but, it is highly recommended to consult a doctor when these signs show up. Symptoms of spotting or discharge are common in endometrial cancer accompanied by tremendous pain in pelvis. Usually, women at post-menopausal age are at moderate endometrial cancer risk. Women must talk to their doctors and get regular pelvic exams. A pelvic test can find traces of cancerous cells, which includes advanced uterine cancers. But, it is ineffective in detecting early endometrial cancers. The Pap test (or Pap smear) screens for cervical cancer and is reliable to some extent. It is mainly effective in determining cancers of the cervix (as cited in American Cancer Society, 2015).
With increasing age, women are at a greater risk of endometrial cancer. Women who undergo late menopause; refrained from giving birth, infertility, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, estrogen treatment, or tamoxifen therapy have maximum chances of falling prey to this deadly disease (as cited in American Cancer Society, 2015).
According to the European Society for Medical Oncology (2011), 90% of women with endometrial cancer are aged over 50 years. Out of 100 women, it affects at least 1 woman and it occurs usually in the mid to late 50s. Endometrial cancer was initially common in Western societies but it is equally affecting the Asians now.
There are other risk factors that increase with age. A woman’s hormonal imbalance plays a role in the development of most uterine cancers. This misbalance can occur anytime in life, but the chances increase significantly with age. Women who had more menstrual cycles in their lifetime and who got their first period before 12 years and menopause after 50 run risk for this type of cancer. As fat deposition rises with age, obesity can also lead to uterine cancer. Fat tissues produce higher levels of estrogen, especially after menopause. Diabetes may develop after 40 years of age and uterine cancer is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes (as cited in Cancer Treatment Centers of America, 2015).
However, the cause and effects of endometrial cancer is heavily dependent upon other demographic factors as well. It is only the American elite class that has regular access to quality checkups. But, for the middle-class working section or immigrants, it is a distant thought to frequently afford expensive healthcare regimes. The American health department already holds a bad reputation owing to below-average health conditions of its citizens. Education levels also matter in this case, as literacy helps in raising awareness against this disease. The Asian society is at a tremendous risk, where women are neglected due to gender differences and oppressive social norms. The developing nations do not have adequate facilities to offer screening tests for all women. Orthodox religious practices also cause negligence of elderly women. So, if risk factors of endometrial cancer are to be discussed, it cannot be limited to hormonal or bodily changes. Uterine cancer is a bigger cause and the American populations either do not take adequate precautions to prevent cancer, or their erratic lifestyle contributes to deteriorating health conditions among women. It ultimately leads to uterine cancer.
American Cancer Society. (2015). Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/endometrialcancer/detailedguide/endometrial-uterine-cancer-diagnosis.
Cancer Treatment Centers of America. (2015). Uterine cancer risk factors. Retrieved from: http://www.cancercenter.com/uterine-cancer/risk-factors/.
European Society for Medical Oncology. (2011). Endometrial cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice
Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Retrieved from: http://www.esmo.org/Guidelines.