Good Ojibwa Life Essay Example
Ojibwe were divided into 5 northern communities, 12 Northwestern communities, and 18 Eastern communities in Canada, including the 5 communities of Mississauga, and 1 in the US, 15 southwest cities in the United States (Gardella 228). The River Severn Ojibwe (Oji-Cree) in 14 Eastern communities and 5 Western communities, the northern Ojibwe at edge to the north of Lake Superior contains 15 communities in Canada and 1 in the US (Vecsey N.p.). Soto is 36 communities in Canada and 2 in the US and 23 Soto Ontario communities in Canada and 1 in the United States. The Ojibwe-speak western dialect of in six Algonquin communities, and speak a dialect of the Ojibwe odava in 11 Ottawa communities; in addition, Canada has seven more communities odava (Ottawa) with a mixed population consisting of odava and Ojibwe, and Potawatomi.
Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are Native American people of Algonquian language family and live in the United States, in the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, and Canada. Ojibwe (Chippewa) are "big brother" or "guardians of the faith" in the existing alliance with the 18th century Indian tribes, known as the “Council of Three Fires, "which along with them enter the Ottawa and Potawatomi (Gardella 228). Their population is about 360 thousand. More than 205 thousand people live in Canada, more than 150 thousand in the United States. They are one of the largest Indian populations in North America is approximately equal to the number of Cree and gives the Cherokee and Navajo. There are currently Minnesota Chippewa Tribe with an elected council (6 communities with a population of about 45 thousand people), which is part of the Great Lakes Intertribal Council.
In Ojibwe, common cults and beliefs were totems, hunting cults, cult's protective spirits and the presiding deity was Gitchi-Manitou (Kichchi-Manito). Their religion is Protestantism, Catholicism, and traditional cults. Belief system was a form of totemism (the word totem is from Ojibwe dialects), headed by the Great Spirit - the supreme creator. Elements controlled smaller spirits, who were also patrons of the arbiters of justice and helping deserving people and punishing the unworthy. In mythology, there was a figure of the legendary hero (Nanabozho), to teach people everything you need in life. Preserved traditional rituals (dance tambourine). Earlier there was a widespread practice stretching lobes ears hanging on by their heavy earrings.
There Association healers and shamans were midevivin, during its heyday who had very much power. In the society of the host, both men and women. The training consisted of eight stages, after the passage of which the witch doctor could understand the medicinal herbs to cure diseases and even perform complex surgical operations. Society led to the recording of birch bark. With the arrival of the French, who began to struggle with the traditional cults, was burned several valuable scrolls. Society has become a secret. In Ottawa, like the Ojibwe, there were hunters of dreams, but they were less common (Gradie 159–159).
History of the Ojibwe
Prior to the arrival of Europeans on the continent Ojibwe passed her story down from generation to generation, mainly orally. There are unconfirmed reports that there are secret birch records that were made by to take notes of their knowledge of mythical stories, which wereknown that Ojibwe came to Turtle Island. Their journey was triggered by the appearance of the seven demiurge, who ordered the tribe to move west along the River St. Lawrence to the Ottawa River and on to the Great Lakes (Vecsey N.p.). One of them crossed the Big Prairie and almost reached the Pacific Ocean. During migration, the Ojibwe drove the hostile tribes from their territories. By the time of the arrival of Europeans in the old Ojibwe were allied with the tribes of the Ottawa and Potawatomi, called the Council of Three Fires, which fought against the Confederacy of the Iroquois and Sioux. After their conquest, they controlled the most territory and obviously had one of the strongest Indian peoples of North America. Since their territory lies north of the mainstream of settlers, and their land was unsuitable for farming, Ojibwe long time, almost no one bothered. They waged war on their own to capture new territories (Gardella 228).
The French arrived in Canada, and Ojibwe used as allies in wars. They led an intensive trade with the Ottawa tribe, who were with the Ojibwe and then to themselves, which provided the Indians with firearms. Thanks, guns Ojibwe finally drove the Sioux (in particular, the Dakota tribe) from their territories in the prairies, although some skirmishes with the Dakota took place a long time. There is evidence that the Ojibwe were at a very primitive level of meeting with the Europeans, having almost no social organization. Only through trade with the French and the subsequent wars, they have developed their social institutions, to equip the general religious holidays and so on.
The U.S. government tried to resettle the Ojibwe from their lands, which led to a series of armed conflicts. Then the US government and Canada signed treaties with the Indians, in which they gave them the land. Ojibwe signed the largest number of such contracts in comparison with all other indigenous peoples of America. However, these contracts were of questionable value because of the difference in outlook: European's land was a commodity that can be easy to buy and sell at a certain price on it, and for the Ojibwe land could belong to anyone, it could only be in conjunction with fire, air and water. Modern analysis of these agreements in view of the Ojibwe outlook shows an entirely different sense of responsibilities. From the time to time people acted in joint Ojibwe Indian uprisings against the Americans and the British (Vecsey N.p.).
Cultural heroes were Nanabozho ("Bunny"), cannibal Wendigo, and there was voodoo society, such as midevivin. According to legend, when the Ojibwe lived on Turtle Island, they have risen from the sea sparkling seven shells miigis. One of them was very strong and deadly to humans, so she fell back into the water. Six shells, which were founded the totems (word, from which the modern term "totemism". They were Wawaazisii, Baswenaazhi, Duck (Aan'aawenh), Bear (Nooke) and tail elk (Moozwaanowe). If the seventh shell remained, it would have to establish a totem Thunder Bird. They sent people on a journey to the west. Interestingly, these demiurges appeared then all the time in dreams and meditations shamans Ojibwe. In one of these visions Sink reported that the farther west they will be, the longer they will be able to follow the traditions, as in the East are the new people who have settled here (White 109–147). This vision could be a prophecy the arrival of Europeans. In the oral epic of existence, there are several complexes, which tell about the invention of various crafts, tobacco, and other useful things for the people. The most famous of them is a cannibal Wendigo and trickster Nanabozho (rabbit), and their developments are of folk dances, crafts, art. There are myths and legends.
Life Style and villages
Most representatives, except for the part that is left on the prairie, lived a sedentary life engaged in fishing, hunting, growing corn and vegetables, gathering wild rice, which playsimportantrole their mythology (White 109–147). Typical Ojibwe village’s houses were wigwams different designs. In the summer were the major holidays: Jiingotamog to communicate with the spirits and niimiidimaa for social communication. Last holiday is an analogue of the holiday powwow, which is celebrated by other Indians. Ojibwe buries their dead in burial mounds. Each of them built a spiritual house (jiibegamig) (Gradie 159–159). Instead, the inscriptions on the graves paint the totem sign of a man who is there. Ojibwe periodically looted graves, which led to the emergence of a special police protection mounds.
Ojibwe divides the world into animate and inanimate. They parathion the female and male gender these are so important. The role of women and men is not defined, as in other ethnic groups and member of the public regarding the benefits of its capabilities, not status. Some Ojibwe were transvestites - for example, a warrior Yellow Head, or Ozaawindib known in the 17th century that was negotiating with the authorities, he wore women's clothes and wasmarried to several men. Among the Ojibwe was distributed cannibalism. Currently engaged in farming, are employed in the lumber camps in the mines, in the service sector, migrate to the cities. Most traditional classes are in the southwestern Ojibwas, Oji-Cree, and the northern and northwestern Ojibwe. A leader and Marriage headed group of families of 20-50 people was patrilocality, which now appears neolokalny marriage. Bride relies on mining. First was the division into patrilineal totemic clans were polygyny, sororate, levirate, cross-cousin marriage. Now the city is preserved tradition of mutual.
Gardella, Robert. “The Canton Trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast, 1700–1845.” The Journal of Asian Studies 2007: 228. Web.
Gradie, Charlotte M. “Law and the Transformation of Aztec Culture, 1500–1700.” History: Reviews of New Books 1996: 159–159. Web.
Vecsey, Christopher. Traditional Ojibwa Religion and Its Historical Changes. Vol. 152. N.p., 1983. Print.
White, Bruce M. "The Woman, Who Married a Beaver: Trade Patterns and Gender Roles in the Ojibwa Fur Trade." Ethnohistory 46 (1999): 109–147. Web.