Research Proposal On Will Marietta College Students Find The Prototype Image As Most Salient Over Other Abstract Images?
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Based on the prototype theory, will the students of Marietta College find the prototype image as most salient over the other abstract images? The prototypes of the images presented will be more salient and likely to be selected as correct or familiar. The prototype theory is a phenomenal aspect of the abstract images. The theory guiding the study will be the tendency of selecting the most salient element or the image that fits the average of all other images. Using the studies from Scott, Dienes, and Mealor, the research will attempt duplicating the results of the study as well as modifying the study to implement the prototypes.
The study will encompass two phases; a learning phase and a testing phase for the duplication of Scott, Dienes, and Mealor study, and the prototype stage. The selection will encompass psychology students both male and female. The subjects of the study will be between the ages of 18 and 22. The study will employ two means of gathering information. The first means will be the AGL, created by Dienes and Scott. The second means will be a program created by Chris Klein for teaching, testing and gathering numeric values as the results.
The participants of the study will be given credit for the psychology classes. The participation will be voluntary, and the subjects will have the liberty to leave at any point in time without the administration of penalties. All the results of the study will be analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA. Anticipated findings are that the students find the find the prototype image as most salient over the other abstract images.
Artificial Grammar Learning- a string of letters, which look random but whose generation takes a rule-based structure.
Prototype theory- the central member of a given category.
Categorization- objects and ideas understood, differentiated and understood.
Different individuals learn about various aspects in life in various ways. Some of these ways include touching, auditory and visual among others. Prototypes are one more way through which an individual can categorize the aspects that they learn. The Artificial Grammar Learning is a form of learning then rules of abstract grammar through understanding, familiarity and memorization. Knowledge on the ideas of the Artificial Grammar Learning is important because it demonstrates the categorization means (Larry, 1996). Artificial Grammar Learning is the learning or the categorization of grammar rules and structures through demonstration and training.
The perception, which Artificial Grammar Learning is an essential form of cognitive categorizing will be significant to this study. The ability to categorize new information is elemental for individuals to learn more efficiently and quickly (Smith & Minda, 2002, p. 25). Prototyping is another form through which individuals can categorize information. For instance, in the case of birds, it is common knowledge that birds fly, have feathers and beaks. This information is a form of categorizing what individuals see as birds. However, there are outliners that make the prototypes somewhat difficult. For instance, Ostriches are birds. However, they do not fly.
Prototypes are also abstract mental representations of the central tendencies of members of a given category. The members of that given category have typicality variances, with the prototype of that category existing as the most typical instance (Rosch, 1973, p.22). The categorization models of prototypes hold that the categories do not need particular sufficient and necessary attributes for the membership. Moreover, the membership in a given category is determined mostly by resemblance, which increases gradually as a given instance shares more characteristics with other members of a category.
Cognition and categorization are important elements of prototypes. The principles of categorization will provide an insight into the research. Significant principles with regard to the study will include the principles of cognitive economy, which provides that what an individual wishes to gain from a given category is an essential aspect of communication concerning the environment while conserving the finite resources (Rosch, 1973, p.25). Another principle is the perceived the world structure, which asserts that the perceived the world does not exist as an unstructured equiprobable- occurring attribute set. Therefore, it will be significant for the study because it will allow for a correlation of the material aspects of the world with the college students in high co-relational structures.
In Rosch’s article, “Cognitive Representation of Semantic Categories,” Rosch tested the prototypes and there pertaining to various cultures. She requested 200 students to grade furniture on a given scale of 1 to 7. She believed that since four was at the middle of the scale, it would most likely be the prototypical response. Rosch proceeded to test the response time and priming. Priming was a higher-level category that was furniture with a subordinate meaning chairs, stoves and stools among others. She extended her research by asking the students to give furniture exemplars, which she then rated upon the amount that a particular item had been listed and the frequency of the item on the list. She proceeded by asking if the prototypes span across various cultures. The frequencies would be significant in determining the prototypes (Rosch, 1973, p.35).
This group of individuals started by taking the individuals through a learning stage where they were presented with grammar correct strings. They proceeded to identify the absolute threshold of the conscious awareness. They gave them a random string of letters and reduced the time on the screen until the letters could no longer be visible as they flashed quickly on the screen. The group of individuals was given a string of letters either grammatically correct or incorrect as well as the prime (Lakoff, 1987, p. 22). The significance of the two experiments was to show the importance of learning, guessing, memory and familiarity in a given session. As such, the study will be elemental to the research because it will enable the evaluation of the students in relation to their prototyping preferences on the means of learning.
Statement of the Problem
The significance of the study will be to understand how people categorize the prototypes. The capacity, to view the process from experimental viewpoints, will be essential to the study as well. The ability will be significant because the study will use the abstract drawings that do not resemble known aspects of phenomena and categorize them by use of a numbering system, which will provide the experimenters with better insights (Lakoff, 1987, p. 33).
The research will extend from previous studies such as, “Unconscious Sources of Familiarity Can Be Strategically Excluded In Support Of Conscious Task Demands” by Dienes, Mealor, and Scott. Since there has been inadequate previous study using the prototypes, it is assumable that the research will pose similar questions. As such, the study will look to answer the question of how people categorize abstract things cognitively.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to understand bow individuals categorize the abstract ideas and how the knowledge of the understanding can be applied to forms of learning. Moreover, the study seeks to provide efficient ways of teaching individuals using prototyping. The study will encompass the use of computer programs designed to teach, test and report the prototyping results.
Research Question and Hypothesis
Based upon the idea of the prototype theory, will the students of Marietta College find the prototype image as most salient over other abstract images?
The study hypothesizes that the prototype of the images presented will be more salient and more likely to be selected as correct or familiar.
The prototype theory refers to the most central member of a given category. Using the research of Dienes, Mealor, and Scott, the study will attempt duplicating the results of their study as well as modifying the study in order to implement the prototypes.
Method and Design
The study will employ both quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Employing both methods of research will be elemental because it will allow for diversity and generalizability in the results. The samples for the study will be made up male and female students of psychology aged between 18 and 22 (Lakoff, 1987, p. 42). The samples will be selected from the pool of human subjects at the Marietta College. The priori power analysis will be employed in the study to calculate the number of participants needed to get usable results. Systematic sampling will be used in order to have an equal number of both male and female participants to reduce bias.
The study will involve experiments, which will consist of a manipulation of variables. These experiments will encompass the use of numbered images varying from 1 to 5. Only certain portions of the images will be varied (Lakoff, 1987, p. 56). These portions will make up a complete image, which will be abstract. The experiments will also involve the manipulation of the numbers during the learning and testing phases. It is only during the testing period when there will be images with varied portions consisting of all 1’s, 3’s the or 5's. The prediction will be the picture with all 3’s, which will be the average of the images selected more frequently and categorized as the prototype.
Instrumentation will be essential for the study as well. The study will employ the Artificial Grammar Learning string as the first instrument. The instrument will be useful for the study since the experiment seeks to modify the means of testing Artificial Grammar Learning and implement the prototypes. The second instrument for the study will be the prototypical selection program, which will define the means to which the selection process and printing of the abstract images for prototypes, grammatical and familiarity will be analyzed (Gatsgeb, Dundas, Minshew & Strauss, 2012, p. 15). The program will be a modification of the Artificial Grammatical Learning used by Dienes, Mealor, and Scott. The program will be useful for the study because it will enhance the teaching, testing and collecting the results in usable numbers for the analysis.
Data collection will involve the use of the prototypical selection program because the results will be usable numbers of testing. A consent letter will be provided at the start of the research to be signed and dated (Gatsgeb, Dundas, Minshew & Strauss, 2012, p. 27). The subjects of the study will have an overview of the constituents of the document followed by a period of questions. The individuals will have the liberty to leave the study at any time without penalties. Analysis will involve the use of repeated measures of ANOVA.
The significance of the study is to develop a clear understanding of how individuals categorize the prototypes. The information can be useful for future research on comprehending the means of priming the familiarity and the process of selecting the prototypes. The limitations of the study may consist of abstract ideas, especially from the prototypes, which might pose significant threats (Gatsgeb, Dundas, Minshew & Strauss, 2012, p. 35). For instance, the participants might be more analytical after the first phase of the Artificial Grammar Learning, which might alter the outcome of the prototypical testing phase. Moreover, the priming of the surname might not be as salient as the familiarity of the images presented during the learning phase. Elimination of all the concerns will encompass proper details to the program designs in order to avoid overlapping of priming and familiarity.
The study will take into consideration various ethical aspects. First, the study will consider informed consent. Before the accrual study begins, their participants will be informed on what the research encompasses and ask for their consent. The participants will be given information relating to the purpose of the study, the procedures followed in the study, all the foreseeable discomforts and risks to the subject, which include the physical injury and possibly psychological.
The participants will also be given information relating to the benefits of the study to the society and the individual human subjects. They will also be provided with information concerning the length of time they are expected to participate; the individuals to contact for the answers to the questions or during cases off emergency and injury. The participants will also be debriefed thoroughly at the end of the research. They will be given general ideas concerning the investigation in the research. The participants will also be requested to ask questions if they have any, which will be honestly answered.
There will be protection of the participants in various ways. That is; the participants will be protected from any form of distress. As such, they will be protected from both mental and physical harm. Therefore, the participants will be protected from embarrassment, fright, offense and harm. The participants will also be informed rightfully concerning the objectives of the research. That is; the participants will be protected from deceit ( Dirven & Taylor, 1988, p. 22). Moreover, the true nature of the study will be revealed at the initiatory possible opportunity or during the debriefing. The participants together with the data obtained from them will be kept anonymous unless they provide their consent. There will be no names or location required during the study.
The prototype structures can be viewed to be a performative and usage-based approach to the categorization of language. There are certain areas of the prototype structures that appear problematic, especially in their theoretical base, For example, the issue of compositionality, where the prototype structures fail rendering adequate accounts of compositionality and the compositional aspects of word meaning ( Dirven & Taylor, 1988, p. 24). Another significant issue is that many of the concepts lack the prototypes. In such instances, the word meanings fail becoming the outcome of an existing structure of prototypes.
The study will acknowledge the conception that the prototype structure from vigorous basis of the psychological data and seem to give plausible models of classification. However, they fail satisfying the basic desired aspects for serving as meanings of words. The research will encompass various methods of study, including both the quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study will be beneficial to other regions because the research findings will be applicable to other regions, especially the learning institutions.
The significance of the study will be essential for the researchers and the college students. That is, it will provide an opportunity to evaluate the most salient abstract images about the prototype theory. Moreover, if the college students learn about the most salient abstract images, they will understand the importance to their learning ( Dirven & Taylor, 1988, p. 44). Future research could include more research questions. Widening the scope of the research will increase the generalizability of the study to the society. Additionally, a wider scope of the research through diverse research questions will promote the insight of the study and increase the understanding of the subject and questions being studied.
Dirven, R. & Taylor, J. R. (1988): "The conceptualisation of vertical Space in English: The Case of Tall", in: Rudzka-Ostyn, B.(ed): Topics in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam
Gatsgeb, H. Z., Dundas, E. M., Minshew, M. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2012). Category formation in autism: Can individuals with autism form categories and prototypes of dot patterns? Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 42(8), 1694-1704. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1411-x
Lakoff, G. (1987): Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind, London.
Rosch, E.H. (1973): "Natural categories", Cognitive Psychology 4, 328-350.
Smith, J. D., & Minda, J. P. (2002). Distinguishing prototype-based and exemplar-based processes in dot-pattern category learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(4), 1433-1458. doi: 10.1037/0278-73184.108.40.2063
Squire, Larry R. "Structure and Function of Declarative and Non-declarative Memory systems."Structure and Function of Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory systems.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 26 Nov. 1996.Web. 03 Nov. 2014
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