Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: United States, Government, Articles Of Confederation, Politics, Congress, Print, Law, America

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/25

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RESEARCH PAPER SCAFFOLD:

Step 1 Thesis
The Articles of Confederation can be termed as the mother of the U.S constitution and that which held the States together from 1781. The essay seeks to defend the Articles of Confederation as the foundation of the contemporary American constitution.

At the time, Articles of Confederation was created.
Step 3:
Source 1 (book/Primary Source)
According to Franklin and Ralph “The article stemmed from wartime urgency and progressed gradually, later ratified on 1st march 1781”24
Franklin, Benjamin, and Ralph Ketcham. The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co, 2003. Print.

The main idea about this subject is:

How Articles of Confederation was the earliest Unites States Constitution and how it paved way for the new constitution that unified all the States.

List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)

1)“ The article of confederation was created in 1881.” (Franklin & Ralph, 24)
2), “Under the Articles central government did not have the ability to regulate trade, levy taxes, and other issues that led to 1787 Constitutional Convention that created the federal laws.” (25)
3) “the Articles of Confederation embodied an endeavor to balance the autonomy of the States with an effectual United States Government.” (Franklin & Ralph, 24)

Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? NO

Source 2 (Primary Source/book)
Step 3:
According to: Levy et al. (42) The Congress was made to serve in appealing disputes, and it had the authority of making alliances and treaties, maintaining the armed forces and coined money)
Levy, Leonard W, Kenneth L. Karst, and Adam Winkler. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. Print

The main idea about this subject is: Inability of the Central government to access money.

List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) “The United States central government had a shortcoming as it did not have the capability of levying taxes and regulating commerce” (42)
2) “As such, articles of confederation of U.S. remained independent and sovereign.” (42)
3) “Under the Articles of Confederation, it was the states but not the Congress who had the power to collect tax.” (43)

Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

No Contradiction
Source 3 (book)
According to: Article six put boundaries on the states, and they were not allowed to enter into treaties with one another or war without the knowledge of the Congress (20)
Hiatt, Mary K, C M. Botterweck, and Mary K. Hiatt. People and Politics: An Introduction to American Government. N.p., 2005. Print.
The main idea about this subject is: The Articles of Confederation was drafted by a committee appointed by the Second Continental Congress.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) The document was written due to the wars that existed then (20)
2) This was a document that was signed by the first colonies of the United States which served as their first constitution. (20)
3) The process was slowed down by the central authority until its ratification on first March 1781. (20)

Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

No contradiction was found within this source.
Source 4
According to: McNeely, Geoff, and Jack :The thirteen colonies which include Massachusetts-bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia and the continuous union with the States of New Hampshire ratified the Articles of the Confederation, which created a national (17)
McNeely, Larry, Geoff Levin, and Jack Skinner. Confederation. Santa Barbara: Sheffield Lab, 1978. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:
This was to go direct the American Revolutionary War that deals with issues of territory and conducting diplomacy in Europe and Native American relations. It was included in the constitution providing for a much stronger federal government with the president and taxing powers.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)

The Committee began on July 12, 1776, and send approved version to the states for ratification in late 1777.

that the formal ratification by the thirteen states was concluded in the beginning of 1781
The Congress was made to serve in appealing disputes, and it had the authority of making alliances and treaties, maintaining the armed forces and coined money

Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

In conclusion, the main aim of this confederation was to provide both domestic and international legitimacy for the continental congress
Source 5
According to: cartel et al. The governing body had the responsibility of declaring war, raising armies and signing treaties with no power of imposition of taxes and regulation of trade (54)
Carter, Gregg. Guns in American Society. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2012. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:

Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire are:

The first article gave United States of America as a name to the Confederacy that is being used up to date.

Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

I found no contradiction to my thesis within this source.
In conclusion, Article two allowed the states sovereignty to have the freedom and to be independent including the powers that the national government enjoyed..

Source 6

According to: DeCandido “The many challenges within the Articles resulted in severe criticism by various nationalists” (51)
DeCandido, Keith R. A. Articles of the Federation. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:
In 1787, the delegates of different states met at Philadelphia for the Constitutional Convention and agreed mutually that it was more viable to make a new constitution other than revising the existing agreement.
1) The Articles of Confederation was replaced in November 1787 thereafter by the US Constitution as the supreme law of the land in (59)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:
the Articles of the Confederation were not resourceful for the development of the United States.
In conclusion, DeCandido argues that “the Articles also had a provision for the formation of new states and regions with a population of 60,000 and more could qualify to make as a state.” (59)

Source 7

According to: Jensen “the Articles of Confederation embodied an endeavor to balance the autonomy of the States with an effectual United States Government” (24)
Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution 1774-1781. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1970. Print.
The main idea about this subject is: to note that unlike the constitution where sovereignty is divided between the state and the central government, in Article of confederation the States was sovereign.
Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

No contradiction was found.

Source 8
Step 3:
According to: Rebman “the article encouraged the thirteen states to cooperate and helped in a big way. This was due to power being in the hands of the Congress and aided in the elimination of oppressiveness like monarchy”
Rebman, Renée C. The Articles of Confederation. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2006. Print.
Democracy was evident in the sense that all the citizens were involved in the government and were part of it. Congressional departments were also formed such as the foreign affairs, treasury and postal service as part of the agreement
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) The Central government was handed powers enabled the government to develop and offer solutions affecting their states." (37)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

No there were not any facts within this document that contradicted my thesis.

In conclusion, Rebman says: that the Peace Treaty with England in 1783 allowed the national government to pass acts in the American history at this time, even though, the confederation lasted for very few years

Source 9

According to: Sonneborn “The biggest strength of this article was that it was able to unite the original thirteen states and help them have a common legislature” (9)
Sonneborn, Liz. The Articles of Confederation. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2013. Print.
The Articles of Confederation. Hoboken: BiblioBytes, 1990. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:
The states were expected to abide by the laws and respect each state despite the antagonism that existed between them before.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
In 1785, The Land Ordinance Act was passed to help develop the abandoned western lands, and this helped the land to be improved and sold, where the land was split and put for sale.(13)
After selling the now improved land the money the money that came from it was used to pay national. Likewise in the Northwest Ordinance (1787), the act was passed to ensure effective governance of the newly created townships. \
Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

There was no contradiction in this material.

In conclusion, such powers enabled the government to develop and offer solutions affecting their states.
Source 10
According to Dougherty; under the Articles of Confederation, it was the states but not the Congress who had the power to collect tax. (43)
Dougherty, Keith L. Collective Action under the Articles of Confederation. N.P., 2001. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:
The articles required for the congress to raise money through requesting the states for the money, selling foreign land, and borrowing from other governments. The congress could not regulate trade or draft soldiers.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
“the article gave the member states the freedom of movement to their citizens. The people are allowed to move freely and enjoy other rights within a state. Each others rights are to be respected and criminalities eradicated.” (48)
“article dealt with the United States national interests. Each member state was requested to send delegates for discussions in the Congress.” (48)
“ the article put boundaries on the states, and they were not allowed to enter into treaties with one another or war without the knowledge of the Congress.” (48)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradictyour thesis? If so, list those here:

There was no contradiction within this source.

In conclusion, Dougherty Article thirteen had it that it was a must for all the members to follow the decisions made by the Congress. The union was to be continuous. In the case of any changes, the Congress had to ratify them by the states

Step 4:Analysis:

My working thesis for this paper is now: (it’s possible that it might be the same as before)
. The Articles of Confederation can be termed as the mother of the U.S constitution and that which held the States together from 1781. The essay seeks to defend the Articles of Confederation as the foundation of the contemporary American constitution.

Step 5 Outline

The Defense of Articles of Confederation
INTRODUCTION
Attention Material
The Articles of Confederation was the earliest written U.S constitution
1. The Articles of Confederation marked to first steps towards uniting American States
2. Before all the States acted in sovereign

B. The Articles of Confederation was induce through numerous attempts

1. The congress were the pivotal links to success

Orienting Material

The congress served as the final option on appeal of any kind of dispute. In addition, the congress was bestowed with the authority to make alliances and treaties, coin money, and maintain armed forces.
the central government did not have the ability to regulate trade, levy taxes, and other issues that led to 1787 Constitutional Convention that created the federal laws.
the Articles of Confederation embodied an endeavor to balance the autonomy of the States with an effectual United States Government
The articles required for the congress to raise money through requesting the states for the money, selling foreign land, and borrowing from other governments. The congress could not regulate trade or draft soldiers
(Transition: The Articles of Confederation was formerly known as the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.}

BODY

I. This was a document that was signed by the first colonies of the United States which served as their first constitution
A. The document was written due to the wars that existed then.
B. The process was slowed down by the central authority until its ratification on first March 1781.
(Transition: As such, articles of confederation of U.S. remained independent and sovereign” (Wood 78)
II. The Congress was made to serve in appealing disputes, and it had the authority of making alliances and treaties, maintaining the armed forces and coined money.
A. the United States central government had a shortcoming as it did not have the capability of levying taxes and regulating commerce.
B. The Articles of Confederation was drafted by a committee appointed by the Second Continental Congress.
C. The Committee began on July 12, 1776, and send approved version to the states for ratification in late 1777
D. The formal ratification by the thirteen states was concluded in the beginning of 1781.
(Transition: The main aim of this confederation was to provide both domestic and international legitimacy for the continental congress)
III. This was to go direct the American Revolutionary War that deals with issues of territory and conducting diplomacy in Europe and Native American relations. It was included in the constitution providing for a much stronger federal government with the president and taxing powers..
The thirteen colonies which include Massachusetts-bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia and the continuous union with the States of New Hampshire ratified the Articles of the Confederation, which created a national.
B. The governing body had the responsibility of declaring war, raising armies and signing treaties with no power of imposition of taxes and regulation of trade.
(Transition: Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire are: The first article gave United States of America as a name to the Confederacy that is being used up to date.)
IV. Article two allowed the states sovereignty to have the freedom and to be independent including the powers that the national government enjoyed..
A. According to the article the different states must unite in the facilitation of common defense, and they have the responsibility of securing their liberties and ensuring that each other is at peace.
B. The Article gave the member states the freedom of movement to their citizens. The people are allowed to move freely and enjoy other rights within a state. Each others rights are to be respected and criminalities eradicated.
C. The article dealt with the United States national interests. Each member state was requested to send delegates for discussions in the Congress.
(Transition: Let’s summarize.)

CONCLUSION

Summary
The biggest strength of this article was that it was able to unite the original thirteen states and help them have a common legislature
The states were expected to abide by the laws and respect each state despite the antagonism that existed between them before.
Democracy was evident in the sense that all the citizens were involved in the government and were part of it. Congressional departments were also formed such as the foreign affairs, treasury and postal service as part of the agreement.
Step 6: Bibliography

Works Cited

Carter, Gregg. Guns in American Society. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2012. Print.
DeCandido, Keith R. A. Articles of the Federation. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. Print.
Dougherty, Keith L. Collective Action under the Articles of Confederation. N.P., 2001. Print.
Franklin, Benjamin, and Ralph Ketcham. The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co, 2003. Print.
Hertwig, Ralph, and Andreas Ortmann. "Deception in Experiments: Revisiting the Arguments in Its Defense." Ethics & Behavior (2008): n. pag. Print.
Hiatt, Mary K, C M. Botterweck, and Mary K. Hiatt. People and Politics: An Introduction to American Government. N.p., 2005. Print.
Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution 1774-1781. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1970. Print.
Levy, Leonard W, Kenneth L. Karst, and Adam Winkler. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. Print
Lyons, William, and John M. Scheb. American Government: Politics and Political Culture. Cincinnati: Atomic Dog Pub, 2003. Print.
McNeely, Larry, Geoff Levin, and Jack Skinner. Confederation. Santa Barbara: Sheffield Lab, 1978. Print.
Rebman, Renée C. The Articles of Confederation. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2006. Print.
Sonneborn, Liz. The Articles of Confederation. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2013. Print.
The Articles of Confederation. Hoboken: BiblioBytes, 1990. Print.

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