Example Of Cognitive Theory Article Review

Type of paper: Article Review

Topic: Psychology, Brain, Cognitive Psychology, Science, Behavior, Human, Therapy, Theory

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/11/12

Abstract

The review titled “Cognitive Theory” includes such points as the overview of the cognitive science; its history which marks the most important events taken place in the given field; techniques which are used by scientists who work in the sphere of cognitive psychology in order to reach the assigned tasks; and the utilization of cognitive theory today. The review paper shows the introduction where there are given the definition of cognitive psychology and the characteristic features of the science which are reflected in the following way: the mutual cooperation between a specialist and a client: the conviction that the psychological discomfort is the consequence of improper work of cognitive components; the task to change the state of perception to reach the desirable emotional changes; the special treatment that is appointed to solve the specific problems. The body presents the information connected with the history of cognitive science and techniques used in the given field. Today, the investigation in the field of cognitive science is appointed to use both computational and theoretical methods. It is worth to mention that the successful result of the investigation is provided with the combination of theoretical and practical aspects in form of experiments.
Key words: cognitive psychology, cognitive science.
Cognitive psychology is one of the sections of psychology which concentrates on the research of mental active conditions such as thinking, memory, perception, attention, usage of language and creativity. It means that scientists, in the given field, investigate in which way people handle data and information they receive, and how the perception of these data has an effect upon the responses.
Just Ulric Neisser was the first scientist who founded the notion of cognitive psychology in 1967. As a science, cognitive psychology is also connected with several other disciplines such as education, business and medicine (“What is Cognitive Psychology? – Definition, Theories & Quiz”). Cognitive psychology defines the problem from the very beginning; if a patient come to the specialist-cognitive psychologist, at first, he/she will ask a patient to designate his/her problems in order to understand which treatment will be more effective. The cognitive psychology is reflected with the help of the following characteristic features: the mutual cooperation between a specialist and a client; the conviction that the psychological discomfort is the consequence of improper work of cognitive components; the task to change the state of perception to reach the desirable emotional changes; the special treatment that is appointed to solve the specific problems. There exist three main theories in the field of cognitive psychology: Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy; Albert Elli’s rational emotive behavior therapy and Donald Meichenbaum’s cognitive behavior therapy (“What is Cognitive Psychology? – Definition, Theories & Quiz”).
Cognitive therapy was invented and developed by Aaron T. Beck. This therapy presents the model where behavior, thoughts and feelings are linked and, the analysis of all these above-mentioned elements can become for a person the way to overcome complications and reach own goals. The therapy lies in the suppositions made to cause reactions connected with emotions and behavior. Albert Ellis’ rational emotive behavior therapy is a psychotherapy which is centered on solving problems belonged to behavior and emotions in the way of stimulating a person to live happily.
Donald Meichenbaum’s cognitive behavior therapy is the approach which contains of a constructive-narrative perspective in a combination with the life-span learning perspective. The cognitive behavior therapy shows the influence of clients’ stories on the fact concerning their employment of adaptive skills and the construction of more vivacious narratives. The given approach was created by Donald Meichenbaum to cure clients with various levels of complexity.
The history of cognitive psychology dates back to the times of ancient Greeks. Just from that time there appeared thoughts about multifarious processes in human mind. In the year of 1637, Rene Descautes claimed that people, from the very beginning of their birth, possess inner thoughts and ideas. The scientist also introduced the notion called mind-body dualism which declared the human body and human mind to be two separate substances. The following debates about human thoughts continued in the nineteenth century. It specified human thoughts, on the one hand, to be empirical and, on the other hand, to be a consequence of the inborn knowledge which was called nativism. The followers of the empirical thought were George Berkeley and John Locke; and the most prominent follower of the idea of nativism was the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (“Cognitive Perspective”).
The next step in the development of cognitive theory was the discoveries made by Carl Wernicke and Paul Broca. Paul Broca discovered the area of human brain in charge of production of language and, Carl Wernicke found out the area of human brain thought out to be in charge of language comprehension. These above-mentioned areas were named in honor of their founders; and disorders connected with traumas in the areas are mostly known as Wernicke’s aphasia and Broca’s aphasia (“Cognitive Perspective”).
The twentieth century was marked with three important tendencies in the field of cognitive psychology. The first tendency was brought by need of better understanding of human performance due to the improvement of military technologies. Donald Broadbent became the person who presented newly created information theory which, in its turn, advanced the field of cognitive science.
The blossoming of computer science opened the idea of combination of human thoughts and functional possibilities of computers. The scientists such as Herbert Simon and Allen Newell developed the concept of existence of artificial intelligence. The consequence of this development was the comprehension of intellectual functions with its analogues in a computer reflected in storage, memory and other elements. In 1959, Noam Chomsky represented the criticism concerning the idea of behaviorism which then became known under the title of “cognitive revolution”. Ulric Neisser invented the notion “cognitive psychology” mentioned in his book Cognitive Psychology. The notion of Ulric Neisser demonstrated the progress in the cognitive science taken place during all previous periods of development of the cognitive psychology (“Cognitive Perspective”).
Cognitive psychologists investigate processes which include thinking, attention, memory, perception and language. Typically, scientists, who work in the given field, put into practice various techniques which are responsible for a lot of new discoveries in the sphere. The cognitive science uses the nomothetic approach in order to learn the cognitive processes of human being, though it also accepted idiographic techniques with the additional help of case studies. Nomothetic approach is used to study what people share with each other. Psychologists, who work with the nomothetic approach, have a wish to study what causes the unique nature of every single person. In spite of the information that out unique nature is hidden in human genes, the difference between the nomothetic approach and the idiographic techniques is associated with two types of science: the natural studies, the basis of which lies in the studying laws of nature and, the social sciences, which have the individual meaning.
For the research of behavior the laboratory experiment is used. The kind of research is carried out in a good organized space. A researcher defines all details concerning the experiment. Such details include where exactly the laboratory experiment will occur, who will take part in an experiment, at what time it will begin. The laboratory experiment can be also called the controlled one where a researcher has a good opportunity to govern the whole process.
Behaviorist approach or behaviorism is connected with the behavior of observance in the opposition with such inner processes as emotions and thinking. Just human emotions and thinking can be classified by behavior. Behaviorist approach states that a person is dependent on those who form a person’s environment. One more statement says that when a person is born, his/her mind is like a blank state which then will be filled up with the experience from events of everyday interaction with others in a society. All the techniques used in the cognitive psychology are needed to develop the science and find new ways directed at the research of human nature (McLeod, 2007).
Nowadays, the investigation in the field of cognitive science is appointed to use both computational and theoretical methods. It is worth to mention that the successful result of the investigation is provided with the combination of theoretical aspects and practical ones in form of experiments (“Cognitive Psychology”). Despite the above-mentioned words, one should say that cognitive science hasn’t reached the big success while combining various areas in the whole. Today, the cognitive science has a lot to work with and to study it. The science never stands still; everything, that it is already discovered, gives opportunity to discover something new.

References

What is Cognitive Psychology? – Definition, Theories & Quiz. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/what-is-cognitive-psychology-definition-theories-quiz.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Cognitive Psychology. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html
Cognitive Perspective. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/history-of-psychology-23/cognitive-perspective-115-12652/
Cognitive Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holah.co.uk/core-studies/cognitive/

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Example Of Cognitive Theory Article Review. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-cognitive-theory-article-review/. Published Nov 12, 2020. Accessed July 20, 2024.
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