Example Of Research Paper On Human Trafficking
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Human trafficking is a global problem that affects the lives of millions of people in almost every country of the world, and which deprives them of their human dignity. As one of the most disgraceful crimes in the world, human trafficking is misleading and makes women, men and children from all corners of the world victims every day and makes them to be the object of exploitation. The smuggling of "live goods" is one of the phenomena that currently receives growth and acquires new forms. One can say that it is a form of modern slavery. This trade after arms and drugs trafficking is the most profitable illegal business in the world.
Some international data suggest that worldwide up to 27 million men, women and children live in slave-like conditions, subjected to forced labor and prostitution. This inhumane business brings to smuggling ringleaders billions of dollars in profits. The most tragic in human trafficking is that in most cases people make this evil, without realizing the consequences. In fact, many people who have become victims of human trafficking, getting on deceit, cunning and false promises of smugglers and without knowledge, pay dearly for it. The destinations of the kidnapped people are most often Western and European countries. So we can say that in European countries retail chains have been introduced into the socio-economic system and transformed into a dangerous mafia connected with some officials. Studies of the European Committee for Human Rights in this area show that, despite the activities of numerous non-governmental organizations, the judiciary, immigration and other government agencies at the regional and international levels, there is still no reliable data on human smuggling.
The distribution by sex and age. Globally, every fifth victim of human trafficking is a child, although this indicator may be higher in poorer regions such as Africa and the Mekong River basin, where children make up the majority of victims of trafficking. The innocence of children is exploited for forced begging, and their bodies are used for child pornography or sexual services. With regard to forced labor, children are sometimes preferred because it is believed that their small hands are better suited to untangle fishing nets, sew luxury goods or collect cocoa. In addition, children are forced to become child soldiers in combat zones. Women account for two-thirds of victims of world human trafficking. The vast majorities of these victims - young women who are raped, ascribed to drug addiction, locked up, subjected to beatings or threatened with violence, put them into debt, taking away their passports, blackmailed or cheated by promising to employ.
Victims of human trafficking are also men and boys, which are used for forced labor and begging, as child soldiers and for sexual exploitation. The proportion of men is lower for several reasons, including the fact that for many years the legislation of many countries aimed at combating human trafficking was mainly focused on the trafficking of women and children or trafficking of persons for sexual exploitation. The presence of many different types of human trafficking means that single typical portrait of victims does not exist. Cases occurring in all parts of the world and the victims indicate that for human trafficking sex, age or origin have no meanings. Children, for example, can be sold from Eastern to Western Europe for the purpose of begging or pick pocketing; girls, for example from Africa, can be lured to the West by false promises of work as models or au pair, but in reality they are trapped in sexual exploitation and pornography. Women from Asia are cheated by perspective legitimate work as domestic servants, which actually leads to the actual imprisonment and violence; both women and men equally, which, for example, are taken from South America to North America, may be forced to work in grueling conditions on farms in vain expectation of a better life.
The sale of human organs. The smuggling of "live goods" for the purpose of selling human organs is another activity of mafia organizations. According to the laws of some countries in which the sale and purchase of human organs is prohibited, or some of the countries in which sick people are forced to wait for years for their turn for organ transplants, caused the formation of the illicit market of human organs. More often than other countries in the world associated with the illicit transplantation of human organs, among other countries is called Palestine. Price of one operation in Palestine, such as kidney transplant is estimated at 200 thousand dollars. It is reported that the availability in Palestine of a large number of polyclinics to transplant human organs encourages Zionist smugglers in various ways to persuade people to sell their organs for insignificant amount of money or they even kidnap people, including children from different countries. In some cases, it was clear that the group of surgeons in the country of the victim committed inhumane acts. Thus after the earthquake which struck three years ago in Haiti in 2009, several mafia gangs involved in human organs in the country, tried to take out hundreds of organs, in particular children’s organs, some of the members of these gangs had Israeli citizenship. Also, in August 2010 gang members on human organ trafficking were detained in Kiev, most of them again had Israeli citizenship.
In recent years, the activities of gangs involved in human trafficking, has spread. This is due to little efforts in the world in the fight against this dangerous phenomenon. Non-governmental organizations and activists, who oppose smuggling of "live goods" in different countries, are confident that one of the main reasons for the spread of this inhumane and illegal business in the world is the lack of the necessary actions to solve this problem. According to published data, in America, for each 800 people trafficked into this country only one smuggler is brought to justice. Punishments are insignificant, convicted after release from prison returns again in this profitable business. Therefore, legal measures, strong administrative requirements, international agreements are necessary. At the same time it is urgently needed to increase international cooperation around the world in the fight against trafficking in human beings.
The reasons and factors contributing to human trafficking. Human trafficking is a complex social phenomenon. The main reasons for this phenomenon are political motives, economic and social crises, civil wars, tribal and religious clashes and even the attractiveness of Western life for people willing to leave their homeland. But a significant number of them are faced with unpaid wage labor, prostitution, become members of gangs on contraband of drugs or even executing terrorist attacks, suicide and members of criminal gangs. In some conflict zones, such as Syria, in hostilities take part people smuggled from other countries. The nature of human trafficking and human exploitation is closely connected with the spread of poverty, segregation in the labor market, limited access to efficient employment, education, social protection and other resources. The unfavorable situation in the labor market, limited employment opportunities are also fertile ground for human trafficking. Since the late 90s began to appear signs of economical recovery. This has contributed to some reduction in the unemployment rate and tension at the labor market, raising the average wage. However, as shown by historical experience, economic growth does not automatically lead to any reduction in poverty or the elimination of human exploitation and human trafficking. On the contrary, economic growth, accompanied by increased competition in the business, social inequality and disintegration, became a kind of catalyst for the spread of exploitation and slavery.
Significant gaps in the main socio-economic indicators of living standards of the population in different countries, show that more developed countries, being attractive to migrants from less developed countries today are far behind from the leading industrial nations of the world, so in the near future they will remain the reception center and a country of transit and export of people for criminal exploitation.
There are several explanations for why poor population groups are most vulnerable to traffickers. Firstly, people in conditions of extreme poverty and hopelessness are prone to risky forms of social behavior. This is manifested in the labor market when choosing a job, as well as in the implementation of other social transactions (in education, seeking medical care, the housing market, and others.). Such models are, for example, illegal migration, informal and marginal employment (informal employment in heavy work at construction, agriculture, timber cuttings and other industries, prostitution and activities associated with the provision of sexual services, various clandestine production of counterfeit goods (clothes, shoes, CDs, alcohol and so on. Hoping to break out of the vicious circle of poverty, people often consciously or unconsciously take a risk and turn out a victim of fraud and various manipulations with the purpose of their exploitation, becoming easy prey to traffickers.
Second, income poverty is closely linked to the so-called poverty of opportunities, i.e. limited access to quality education, productive employment, medicine and other resources for human development. Limited access to social resources by itself is an important factor in the marginalization and vulnerability of large groups of people for different kinds of exploitation, including human trafficking. So the lack of general education and legal illiteracy are factors that facilitate the manipulation of such people and setting them in dependence and operating conditions.
The processes such as family crisis, the spread of violence in the family, the growth of dysfunctional families, social abandonment, alcoholism, and other factors also contribute to the prevalence of different forms of human exploitation. A lot of children grow up in single-parent families. Mostly women take care of them. The level of income in these families is significantly lower than in families where there are two working parents. General gender inequality, lack of equality in the family is expressed in widespread domestic violence and marital distress. Together with severe living conditions and housing problems, alcoholism and the devaluation of family values (the spread of informal marriages, cohabitation, etc.) are also the root causes of the growth of human trafficking and the vulnerability of large groups of people in the face of various forms of criminal exploitation.
Mechanisms of human exploitation embedded in modern economic order. In conditions of limited people's access to development resources the human traffickers often use the "gaps" in the official structures and services, offering to a person exactly what he needs at the moment and what he can not get through official channels. Thus, the elderly are proposed lifetime support and assistance, and as a result they are "sold" together with their apartment; persons with disabilities are used for begging in exchange for "support and protection" that they can not get from the state; young girls looking for foreign partners are offered services of "dating services", which lead them into the hands of traffickers; people who want to earn money are suggested help at "employment", which turns into slave labor. Services offered by traders often develop at the site of the vacuum of official social infrastructure and public services. The risk of falling into a situation of human trafficking is particularly high where support of vulnerable groups by the state is difficult or limited. Analysis of the root causes of human trafficking is very important both for understanding the problem, and for the organization of preventive work, assistance to victims, as well as for detection and investigation of crimes.
Combating human trafficking. The problem of combating human trafficking is solved by various national and international measures. In December 2000, at the 55th General Assembly session of the United Nations was adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish for Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. This document at the highest international level defined the responsibilities of States to combat human trafficking. The protocol is designed to coordinate general and criminal policies of the Member States relating to trade of the people. The purpose of the document is promoting cooperation of the participating countries in the prevention, investigation and prosecution of international illegal movement of people, especially for forced labor and sexual exploitation, with particular attention to the protection of women and children as the most frequent victims of such acts. Protocol on human trafficking obliges member states to take steps to investigate and prosecute human trafficking, with particular emphasis on international cooperation, as well as to protect and assist victims of trafficking, and to take preventive measures. The Convention provides for general measures to combat organized crime, including measures for the confiscation of funds and the protection of victims and witnesses of organized crime, and also applies to the fight against human trafficking. Currently, the participants of the Protocol are 148 countries; however, despite the high level of political commitment, the implementation of the Protocol by States still is very uneven.
At the plenary session of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, July 16, 2003 was adopted a resolution calling on states to comply human rights under the enlargement of NATO and the EU. The resolution contains two appeals: to the members of the OSCE - "to ensure that their national legislation provides means and institutions to combat illegal trafficking of persons", and to the EU and NATO - with the admission of new members "to maintain highest standards of democracy, human rights and the rule of law "in these countries. The problem of human trafficking was more actual in the last decade, and at the moment in its quantitative parameters and qualitative characteristics represents a serious threat to the normal development of various spheres of the social organism, causing concern to the international community. In the fight against this phenomenon significant progress has already been made, and many states are paying it enough great importance and priority.
At the national level, countries continue to implement the Protocol, and working together to integrate into its domestic law provisions on the fight against human trafficking. In addition, in some countries occur every year improvements related to the introduction of special legislation, as well as with the creation of special police units to combat trafficking in human beings and the development of national action plans to address this problem. However, despite the increase in the number of convicted in cases of trafficking of people, it is still very low. It is required to increase the effectiveness of the Protocol implementation at the national level and enhance regional and international cooperation in order to solve this problem. However, one should not assume that public authorities are not solely responsible in the fight against human trafficking. Ordinary people in their daily lives can assist in combating this type of crime, if they are aware of the problem and if they will not leave unnoticed the difficult situation of victims. At the present time violence and persecution in the host countries with regard to victims of human trafficking leads to the fact that the victim ceases to apply to the authorities about the abuses of merchants. They believe that they will be treated as illegal migrants, subjected to arrest and deportation. For example, foreign women working in brothels are often deported, while traffickers avoid responsibility. Perhaps that is why many witnesses refuse to cooperate with the police. They believe that their lives will subsequently be in constant danger from countless sex agents.
One of the ways of solving the problem of human trafficking - state intervention at all levels of trade. Governments of the sending and receiving countries should confirm their positions with respect to all types of agreements, programs and instruments to combat human trafficking and to take steps in promoting and implementing their commitments. States that have not ratified the international instruments to combat human trafficking should do so immediately. At the present time all responsibility for the results of ravel is imposed only on the citizen. For instance, if a woman or girl was transferred from one country to another, even with her consent, as a result she got into slavery or servile status; she should be classified as victims of human trafficking. Despite the occupation, the woman does not cease to be citizen of her country; it means that she is under the protection of the state, which is obliged to defend her.
The next method to solve the problem of human trafficking - education and training of employees of law enforcement agencies at all levels of decision-making and regular employees. The training should include an understanding of the situation that has signs of human trafficking, the definition of structure of crimes, identification of the phenomenon of organized crime in the area of human trafficking, awareness of the fact that victims of trafficking should not be regarded as illegal migrants or criminals but as people whose human rights have been violated in the process of trafficking. It is needed to bring together government and social institutions in the creation of anti-trafficking programs and assistance to victims because of acts of merchants.
I think that because trafficking as a phenomenon has a variety of forms, the process of combating it has no easy solution. In conditions of corruption to deal with transnational crime is very difficult. But the fight against human trafficking can no longer be limited to local and national efforts. The practice of various countries shows that programs of combating human trafficking need comprehensive measures.
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