Example Of Research Proposal On Methods Design:
Psychology Research: Memory Compensation
Psychology Research: Memory Compensation
The uptake of memory compensation is influenced by a variety of factors. In the qualitative review investigated earlier this semester, it was found that memory strategies can help facilitate independence amongst patients suffering from brain injury. Through previous investigation of variables that can be changed through rehabilitation, it is possible to gather significant evidence regarding what factors impact the overall uptake of memory strategy. This topic is important because of the value it proposes towards cognitive psychology and the prospects for those suffering with memory related conditions. It also is relevant to the best practices of care and rehabilitation. This exploration of factors affecting memory uptake will include variables that can be modified through rehabilitation. It is hypothesized that beliefs about health as well as perceptions of specific aid will help scientists understand and influence the uptake of memory strategies.
Significant research has been performed in the area of memory compensation and uptake strategies that are relevant to the way that those suffering from sustained brain injury may perceive effects on their life. Currently the number of people who have demonstrated diminished life quality after clinically defined brain injury is great. This impacts individuals who have suffered from strokes and brain injury. Because of perceptions regarding memory compensation and other individualized conditions it is important that investigation in this area continue to create a valuable information regarding rehabilitation. This will further allow care settings to impact the lives of those patients interested in enhancing their memory, retention and other relevant factors.
Cognitive Psychology encompasses the investigation of internal mental processes. This is based on the actions, thoughts, learning patterns, and perceptions and words that people utilize throughout their lives. As discussed in a qualitative review of this area in cognitive science memory difficulty a variety of factors contribute to effective memory uptake, only some of which can be identified and rehabilitated (Baldwin, Powell, & Lorenc, 2011).
Historically it is evident that focusing on one specific framework is that it may provided limited results in terms of the scope of cognitive psychology. Interpersonal behavior relates to the nature of stereotypes that require further development in personal perception research. As there has been a resurgence of interest in cognitive perception, research regarding the formation of impressions, personal behavior and disposition has been studied. These are applied to jury decisions and clinical trials.
Throughout the study investigated earlier, purposive sampling was used. This utilizes information about the specific population in question in designing the study characteristics. Such an analysis proves useful for situations requiring the demonstration of a targeted sample. (Baldwin, Powell, & Lorenc, 2011). The proposed study will emulate this model of analysis in order to create the most consistent and comparable technique to literature in the field. Ultimately such a strategy allows for the best implementation of evaluation in the future as well as significant aspects for comparison between the diversified results within cognitive psychology. Stereotyping is the seen as serving a need for the perceiver. This demonstrates prejudice and motivations underlying intentions. Other literature determines this process to be the result of ‘faulty reasoning’ or while maintaining biases poses some ‘kernel of truth’. Ultimately theorists agree that categorization predisposes stereotyping. This is furthered in terms of in-group and out-group studies that reflect how a patient may perceive the world through a useful process. Cognitively defining group membership can produce perceptual distortion in order to justify the use of categories. These studies show the importance of further research regarding the use of categorization and the potential impact of intervention on the self-perceptions and judgment of individual and group sessions (Carroll, 2014).
Another developing area within cognitive psychology involves computational modeling. This is an important medium that develops theories and emulates specific areas of cognitive control. Control can be defined within this context as an optimal parameter for task processing. Historically cognitive control and connectionism have been interrelated throughout studies. Within cognitive psychology combining distinction between automatic and controlled processing takes specific note of the supervisory and central executive system. As this branches into the field of neuropsychology and roles of the prefrontal cortex evidence of task representation and temporal integration with behavior have been explored in early research. The most significant conclusions of this work has been extrapolated to controlled versus automatic processing, the Stroop Model illustrating color pathways, and Guided activation theory (Botvinick, 2014).
Several key concepts that present themselves throughout cognitive studies include succession and duration. These refer to the order or sequential nature of phenomenon, and the characteristics of particular events. Temporal perspective is the final aspect of psychological investigation in time and encapsulates the individual’s experience and conceptions regarding various points in time (Block, 2014). These are relevant to understanding the specific memory uptake strategies and ways that they can be assessed in terms of the perceiver and their cognition. It also began investigations regarding the simultaneous and successive nature of events. This can relate to all aspects of cognitive psychology including memory and models of time.
Several pertinent studies have shown that memory compensation can be used to assist those with memory problems following acquired brain injury (ABI). This is consistent with a better quality of life and can assist individuals with trauma. Since memory problems have contributed to the diminished quality of life with people of strokes and other ailments the utilization of memory compensation within rehabilitation programs is beneficial to improving the human condition. Very few studies have been utilized in this field to create information regarding injury and demographic variables of brain injury. A variety of factors affect this area of investigation including awareness of a deficit, perceptions of memory compensation and health beliefs (Baldwin et al, 2011).
Since this study evaluates the complex nature of memory uptake and strategies surrounding their implementation a qualitative design will be used. This approach allows for gaining a deep understanding of cases and contexts that may influence memory uptake. Quantitative assessments will be utilized sparingly in order to calculate the overall changes and scores of participants through pre-determined standards of cognitive psychology.
Comparable to previously illustrated purposive sampling, this type of judgment-based decisions will be utilized in order to ensure the correct characteristics of each participant. In addition to these qualitative conclusions, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the patients through a traditionally used scale to measure quantitative and qualitative efficacy in trials. As designed by Sale and Brazil (2004) several criteria will be used in order to judge the benefit of investigated material from previous sources and from the new trials.
The method used for this research will be purposive sampling. Similar to the previously investigated study this method is the best way to acquire a sample that reflects the mutual characteristic of having suffered some type of sustained injury that has previously demonstrated affects on their memory. Depending on the complexity of tasks and prevalence of consistent characteristics amongst the test audience, it would be beneficial to evaluate 20-50 participants.
Initially this investigation will circumvent the available research and literature regarding memory uptake. After reviewing comprehensive medical databases for cognitive functioning, and impact of techniques regarding the assimilation of memory in patients with sustained brain injury, documentation will be provided regarding all meaningful conclusions. The next phase will involve trials to promote and sustain the evidence found in this literature.
The first step of this process will be to submit a pre-screener and all related documents to the IRB for approval. After this point, the qualifying questions will be accessible through the school or office mandated system online. Participants who may be able to complete the study will be invited to fill out this questionnaire. This pre-emptive analysis will include all necessary demographic information as well as pertinent things about their condition. All qualified participants will be invited and scheduled to have in person meetings with the investigator. In order to maintain confidentiality there will be only one participant evaluated at a time.
Sale and Brazil (2004) have provided a criterion of 17 items that are relevant to both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of this study. From these a selection of 13-14 will be selected based on the relevance to participants. A relatively new tool will be utilized as a formation of questions regarding the patient’s experience with memory uptake strategies and the past influence of their condition. Biographical information regarding specific circumstances that have lead to their limited retention or problematic memory will be also assessed. Together these two tools will ensure the reliability and validity of data. Further, they will allow for more careful analysis and conclusions that are comparable to those found in the literature.
Consistent with the qualitative discussions provided in earlier studies, it is possible to provide the best-case scenarios and relevant information from each participant in a coherent case by case basis. This is how the qualitative and interview information will be inculcated into meaningful results in terms of cognitive psychology and perceptual science. Quantitative data will be analyzed according to the Sale and Brazil (2004) scale and will reflect contemporary statistical practices in its assessment.
There are a variety of ethical concerns that may affect the implementation of this study. However, most of the risks associated with these can be mitigated through proper pre-emptive strategies and targeted protocol. Deception amongst participants may be possible in their inability to remember or lack of ability to provide forthright information regarding the impact of trials.
With proper guidance and a relaxed atmosphere as ensured by the investigator, this risk may be diminished. Since patients will not actively deceive the study, but rather may do so out of feelings of insufficiency or risk, the investigator’s role will be developed and scripted ahead of time. This will ensure a positive environment that allows for the most reasonable and consistent responses. Second, a conflict of interest between the investigator and the results they are documenting may exist.
If the investigator would be interested in verifying a memory uptake strategy to be presented a certain way, they may be inclined to provide inconsistent qualitative data. Therefore, the investigators will be blinded as to the hypothesis of improvement to any of the strategies and will instead be asked to document all responses verbatim. This will limit the risk of investigators creating particular impressions of a topic or strategy while ensuring the best practices in research and investigation.
Assisting patients with traumatic brain injury and other medical conditions that have affected their functioning has great benefits to the quality of life and overall situation for many suffering people. This is an important area of research because of the potential it offers for enlivening those with a diminished condition after sustaining injury or specific trauma. Through correct analysis and meaningful conclusions regarding memory compensations it becomes possible for the rehabilitative setting to create sustained modes of therapy for patients who need it. Further, it allows for perceptions or limitations regarding treatment and therapy to be mitigated through clinically proven examples of strategies that can benefit the suffering.
As demonstrated throughout the literature there are a variety of underlying factors that may influence and impact the way that memory uptake strategies are assimilated. Time and the psychological perceptions of stereotyping are just some ways that perceptual science accounts for human behavior and attitudes. The question analyzed in this investigation is a unique aspect to exploration because it emphasizes the fundamental differences between strategies through out an audience with consistent characteristics.
This study is important because of the significant value it will add towards understanding memory uptake strategies and their implementation. It is important that investigations like this one are conducted in real-time so that there are effective strategies identified and verified for use amongst patients and those suffering with conditions that may inherently require medical attention. Further, such attention to detail and investigation can provide a significant view of cognitive psychology from the perspective of cross-comparable factors that may influence human development and mental processing with a number of fields.
In conclusion this study will provide more evidence and confirmation of early theories regarding cognitive psychology and the perceptual sciences needed to create lasting improvement to those with sustained brain injury. This will magnify the rehabilitative process and create best practices for clinicians in the future.
Baldwin, V. N., Powell, T., & Lorenc, L. (2011). Factors influencing the uptake of memory compensations: A qualitative analysis. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 21(4), 484-501.
Block, R. A. (Ed.). (2014). Cognitive models of psychological time. Psychology Press.
Botvinick, M. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2014). The computational and neural basis of cognitive control: charted territory and new frontiers. Cognitive science, 38(6), 1249-1285.
Carroll, J. S., & Payne, J. W. (Eds.). (2014). Cognition and social behavior. Psychology Press.
Greene, J. D. Beyond point-and-shoot morality: why cognitive (neuro) science matters for ethics. Ethics.
Newman, M. (2011). Research methods in psychology: San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Sale, J. E. M., & Brazil, K. (2004). A strategy to identify critical appraisal criteria for primary mixed-method studies. Quality & Quantity, 38, 351-365.
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