Facilitating Change In Health And Social Care Organizations Essay Sample
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1.1. Explain the key factors that drive change in health and social care services Change in social services and health is the result of the interplay of a host of factors. A factor that influences changes in social services and health is the change in the expectations of the users. Currently, the health sectors as well as social services are under pressure to be more flexible in the delivery of services in addition to increase the accessibility of services because of rising expectations of the users. The pressure from the changing user expectations is expected to continue, especially with the development of the user role due to the availability of information (Centers for Innovation in Health Management, n.d.). For instance, CQC report serves to provide information upon which users will act. This can only pile the pressure on the health sector and social services. There are different methods and approaches to treatment that are available. The availability of information will influence health development as the users; owing to the availability of information will have more choices with regards to the place as well as the method of treatment. Information o the quality of different treatment methods, the risks inherent in these treatment methods and the expected outcomes has an influence on the changing expectations of the users (Centers for Innovation in Health Management, n.d.). The changes in the expectation of the users are not just occurring in the health sector, but also in social services. Rather than perceive themselves as passive recipients, the users are encouraged to perceive themselves as consumers. Consequently, the users have more choices in determining how their needs can be met. This has been brought about by an increase in awareness, occasioned by availability of information. Additionally, the enactment of The Community Care Direct Payments Act of 1996 also contributed to the change in user expectations by offering more choices to the consumers by way of directly purchasing care services, by that eliminating intermediaries (Centers for Innovation in Health Management, n.d.). Another factor that influences changes in social services is changes in recruitment. The increase in the role played by women in the health sector is a conspicuous change. Additionally, the medical labor market has been internationalized due to the effects of globalization. As a result, there is diversity in the medical human resource in various health institutions. This results in a cultural change where local cultures are influenced by other cultures. By assimilating other cultures, the change in the social services and health institutions also occur. Technological advancement is another factor that has influence the change in social care services and the health sector. Firstly, assistive technology has helped in the delivery of quality treatment. As highlighted earlier, the change in user expectations is an important driver for change. The confluence of the need for quality treatment and assistive technology in the delivery of care has helped improve health delivery. The influence of electronic record keeping as a driver for change is also very significant. The use of electronic medical records enables service providers to offer efficient services. This is because such information is easily retrievable. With regards to the use of electronic communication, it is noteworthy that the CQC report found that the provisions for electronic tagging device that are used in patients who are at the risk of wondering were not followed. This serves as a safeguard as outlined in the Mental Capacity Act of 2005.1.2. Assess the challenges that key factors of change brings to health and social care services Various challenges have resulted from the drivers for change in social care services and health. One of the most significant challenges is incorporating the said changes into the existing services. This is because some of these changes require the overhaul of existing systems and in place, the incorporation of the new systems. For instance, CQC report highlighted the minimal use of electronic tags to people who are at risk of wandering. The electronic tagging of these people is provided for in the Mental Capacity Act of 2005. However, the use is impeded by the fact that the incorporation of these systems in the existing ones requires an overarching framework that may not be present in the organization. Another challenge is employee apathy and resistance. It could be from the fact that the employees in social care services and the health sector were not involved in the formulation of these changes, and as such, do not have a sense of ownership. Alternatively, I could be due to the fact that the employees to do deem the changes important, hence the resistance in incorporating and working with these changes. In an instance where the changes are administratively forced on them, this may result in employee apathy. Another challenge is the perception that the changes are undermining existing services. For instance, the CQC report highlights problems with the new Hydration Bundle Policy. More precisely, 90%of the fluid charts were not used in assessing the fluid balance, even for patients who could not feed themselves. It might be perceived that the new Hydration Bundle Policy is undermining existing systems. This can be solved by requiring the participation of the employees in designing such policies. This not only offers an opportunity for them to learn, but also encourage their input. This creates a sense of ownership and as such improves the sustainability of such projects.
LO2: Be able to evaluate recent changes in health and social care services2.1. Devise a strategy and criteria for measuring recent changes in health and social care As highlighted earlier, resistance and employee apathy when it comes to changes in health care and social care services. It is important to avoid such incidents in future, especially during the evaluation stage. In order to avoid this, the strategy and criteria for measuring changes within health and social care services should embrace inclusivity. This is so that all the stakeholders are involved in measuring change. This will give them a sense of ownership of the results (McDonnell, Wilson & Goodacre, 2006, pg.103). The strategy to be used in measuring the changes in health and social care services is the participatory evaluation. In this strategy of evaluation, the stakeholders will be actively engaged in the development of evaluation protocols and all the phases of evaluation. In this strategy, the stakeholders who boast the biggest stake play an integral role. Such stakeholders include funders of health care institutions, program beneficiaries, key decisions and the partners. The participation of the stakeholders is required in the evaluation process (Lopez, Krause, Mackay & World Bank. 2012, pg.14). This includes the design and planning of the evaluation process, the identification of the relevant questions forming the evaluation protocol, the selection of the suitable measures and the appropriate data collection methods for the evaluation phase. The stakeholders are also actively involved in the collection and analysis of data. It is important to note that the strategy calls for the involvement of the key stakeholders right from the design of the of the evaluation protocols to the analysis of the information (Zukoski & Luluquisen, 2002, pg.1). This is in line with concerns from the CQC report of resistance and apathy. By involving the stakeholders in measuring change, they will own the results of the evaluation process.The criteria for measuring the change include the following:a. Relevance: The changes in social care services will be measured by relevance. The idea behind this element in the criteria is to determine whether the changes are relevant to the current situation in healthcare in terms of meeting health needs and improvement in quality care. The relevance of these changes will also be evaluated with respect to current technologies, the capacity of the institutions and the resources.b. Progress: many of the changes in social care services and health have resulted in new processes. It is important to measure and ascertain that these processes have been fully incorporated into the existing frameworks, and that there is actual progress. The progress will be evaluated against indicators such as time, budget and personnel.c. Efficiency: The changes will also be evaluated for efficiency. This is important in order determine the relationship between the resources that are committed as a result of the changes and the results emanating from the changes. This is important in order to determine whether the changes are also backed by properly trained personnel, adequate supervision, and commensurate remuneration.d. Effectiveness: It is important that the changes in social care services and health care are effective. In this regard, it is important to determine the outcomes of the changes. This information is important when deciding on the level of inputs for such changes.e. Impact: various changes will have different impacts on the system and the employees. Some of these impacts could be negative while others could be positive. While some changes occur inadvertently, others are deliberately instituted by agencies within the health care system. It is imperative to establish whether such changes have had the desired effect.f. Sustainability: any change that is not sustainable is bound to fail, in the long run. Before more resources are committed, it is important to determine the value of the changes within the health care system and also within the community. Changes that are valued by the community are sustainable in the long term.2.2. Measure the impact of recent changes on health and social care services against set criteria
2.3. Evaluate the overall impact of recent changes in health and social care The most recent change in health care is the enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012. Under this act, a host of changes to the National Health Service were envisioned, to take effect from the first of April in 2013. Some of these changes included advancing real budgets to groups of general practices and clinical commissioning groups to capacity build them to purchase care for their local communities. Additionally, the new changes led to the creation of a economic regulator that was health specific. This regulator was mandated to identify and eliminate ‘anti-competitive’ practices. The following is an evaluation of these changes against the criteria outlined above.a. Relevance: the changes occasioned by the enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 are very relevant. The concern for the people with disabilities and the elderly population, especially with regard to their ability to meet the health care costs is very legitimate (Nuffield Trust, 2015).b. Progress: Seeing that the real changes only came to effect in 2013 there may not be enough information to judge the progress (Nuffield Trust, 2015).c. Efficiency: the changes occasioned by the enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 are backed by other institutional and administrative changes. For instance, advancing real budgets to groups of general practices and clinical commissioning groups to capacity build them to purchase care for their local communities. Additionally, the new changes were backed by the creation of a economic regulator that was health specific. This regulator was mandated to identify and eliminate ‘anti-competitive’ practices (Nuffield Trust, 2015).d. Effectiveness: It is also too early on to determine the effectiveness of the changes occasioned by the enactment of Health and Social Care Act 2012. However, the objectives envisioned in the act promise better care for people with disabilities and the elderly (Nuffield Trust, 2015).e. Impact: The changes will have a positive impact on health care and social services. For instance, the elderly and people with disabilities will not be limited by costs in the pursuit for health services (Nuffield Trust, 2015).
f. Sustainability: the recent changes are sustainable for two reasons. Firstly, the changes are welcomed in the community because they result in a significant reduction in the cost of health care. Secondly, the changes also result in improved care for, the elderly and people with disabilities (Nuffield Trust, 2015).2.4. Propose appropriate service responses to recent changes in health and social care services In light of the recent changes, health institutions, and social care services should improve the quality of service delivery. Additionally, there should be an improvement in the efficiency ion service delivery. As a result of these changes, there is an expected increase in the number of people seeking health services. Therefore, it is imperative for institutions in health care to improve efficiency in service delivery in order to avoid bottlenecks.
LO3 Understand the principles of change management3.1. Explain the key principles of change management Change management is a very important and sensitive process. People are not always willing to change. It is vital that they comprehend that the change is worth their while. In order to achieve this, several principles have been coined to aid in the process of change management. One of the key principles of change management is transparency. Transparency is very important in initiating change. In order to get a change to its completion, it is important to involve all the stakeholders right from inception. Changes that are initiated by select committees are met with apathy and resistance, as has been highlighted in the CQC report (Kaminski, 2011, pg.1). Another principle of change management is agency. It is essential that the change is met with some degree of urgency. In this respect, it is important to have skilled leader to oversee the change management process. This leader is important in creating an enabling atmosphere where cooperation and collegial actions are taken collectively. Readiness is another principle that is important to change management. As highlighted earlier, people have to be ready to change. In this aspect, the concept of readiness entails the willingness to adapt, take action and completely and fully implement the changes (Kaminski, 2011, pg.1). Flexibility and adaptation are the other principles of change management. Flexibility and adaptation are inherent in everyone. It is necessary for an organization hoping to implement changes to provide their employees with adequate resources and time to support the intended change. Some of the many ways through which an organization can encourage flexibility and adaptation is through support personnel, education, and experimentation. This is essential in empowering the stakeholders and generating flexibility and adaptability in a manner that is meaningful and cohesive (Kaminski, 2011, pg.1). The other principle of change management is voice. The environment in which change occurs should reflect comfort and a freedom to share questions, concerns, ideas, and confusion regard the change process. At times, voicing ones opinion regarding the change process is all that is required to change people’s stance. As such, it is important for an organization seeking to effect change to create safe mediums through which communication can take place. The final principle of change management is sustenance. A high level of sustenance is required in order to successfully complete the change process. This is achieved through encouragement, on-going support, dialogue, education and sustained access to requisite resources (Kaminski, 2011, pg.1).3.2. Explain how changes in health and social care are planned As highlighted above, planning change is a very important and sensitive process. An analysis of the CQC report showed that some of the changes were met with apathy and resistance. In order to avoid this; certain elements are required in the planning phase. Various methods are used when planning for change. One of the key methods is consultation. Consultation is very important when planning for change. It is through consultation that consensus on the various elements of the change process is generated. Through consultation, ideas on various elements of the change process are also generated and debated. However, it is important that the consultation process is inclusive. This means that all the stakeholders, at all the levels of the organizational structure (Adindu, 2007, pg.27). It is important because, even though, the change process starts at the highest point in the organizational structure, most of the change occurs at the lowest point on the organizational structure. It is for this reason that these people should be involved in the planning of the change. A failure to use an inclusive consultative approach might result in the apathy and resistance that is highlighted in the CQC report. The management style is very crucial when planning for change. As highlighted earlier, leadership is important in generating the impetus to an organization in readiness for change. The management style employed by the head of an organization is important in achieving cohesiveness among the employees and other stakeholders (Hubbard, Rice & Galvin, 2014, pg.414). As discussed earlier, skilled leaders are able to galvanize the entire organization towards the modalities of change. Management styles that empower the employees create an environment where the stakeholders can explore different ideas, making it easy for the employees to be receptive to change (Pugh, 2007, pg.14).3.2. Explain how changes in health and social care are planned
As per the evaluation criteria highlighted above, progress was one of the key elements. It is important that the recent changes are backed progress. Progress can only be determined through monitoring. Various approaches can be used to monitor the changes that have occurred in health care and social care services in the recent past. In addition to the elements in the evaluation criteria, the changes will be monitored through internal monitoring and external monitoring (World Health Organization, 2011, pg.10). With regards to internal monitoring, the performance across various quality domains. This will be done against the national standards as well as the evaluation criteria outlined above. With regards to external monitoring, the changes in health care will be monitored using national surveys. It is essential to establish the impact of these changes on a broader level. It is for this reason that national surveys are an appropriated monitoring tool. Various elements in the evaluation criteria will form part of the themes in these surveys. For instance, it is necessary to understand the relevance of these changes at a national level.
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Hubbard, G., Rice, J. and Galvin, P. (2014). Strategic management. Melbourne. Pearson Australia.
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