Type of paper: Report

Topic: Robot, Fire, System, Design, Operation, Motor, Disaster, Sensor

Pages: 8

Words: 2200

Published: 2020/10/12


The aim is to have a robot design that would be used in the detection of fire existence. It will be a useful system that will be instrumental in detecting fire breaks and having strategies to put off the fires in advance. The aim of the research is to have a fire robot that would be multi-sensor and would be useful in fighting fire in every-day life. In the design, the firefighting robot will make use of flame detectors. The firefighting methods and procedures will be programmed with the use of sensor-based methods and procedures. There are thermistors/flame sensors that have been integrated in the firefighting sensors that will be useful in the entire process of designing a firefighting sensor. It helps in the management and undertaking of the whole and entire system. The thermistors will be used to measure the temperature of the environments that the equipment is operating. They will send the alarm in case there is some urgent need for action to be taken. In case the temperature will rise beyond the threshold that has been set, it will trigger the buzzer to raise the alarm. It will alert the people concerned that there is some fire danger in the entire process. It will enable the people to understand the issues that are associated with the fire.


The Fire Detector and Extinguisher Robot has been designed so that it is able to detect and extinguish fire occurrence. There are two modes with which the system can be operated on, either manual or autonomous. In the first mode of operation, the process of operation will be achieved through the use of joysticks. On the other hand, the operation of the system with the use of the second mode will be achieved without the intervention of human beings (Zinko, Jemeljanovs, & Sulojeva, 2011). In the manual operation, the direction with which the robot will go will be determined by joysticks. The operation of the pump will also be done and operated through the use of the joystick. There is a switch which is used to choose between manual and autonomous modes of operations.
A robot is defined as being a mechanical system that has been designed so that it is able to adopt human-like behavior. Robots are designed so that they are able to mimic human behaviors. There is a need to have expertise and expert in programming in order to build robots. It is a process that will involve building motors, flame sensors, and wires. There are other components that will make up the robot in the entire process.

Robot design requirements and conceptual design

In the project, the robot that will be designed will make use of dc motors, castor wheel, sprinkler, sensors, and pumps. The main component of the system will be microcontroller. The microcontroller will control the working of the robot in the entire management and working of the project. The microcontroller is designed so that it controls all other components in the system. The signal is sent from the fire sensors to the microcontrollers. Because of the fact that the signal from the sensors are weak, they will be amplified so that they are able to be obtained and got from the sensors. On getting the signal, the buzzers will go on so that a fire alarm will be started. After the alarm that comes from the buzzers have gone on, there will be the actuation of the driver circuit which will drive the robots towards the place where the fire has occurred. As the robot will approach the location of the occurrence of the fire, there will be the activation of relay and pump switch which will be switched ON. This action will ignite the sprinkler to start sprinkling water to the fire.


There is an algorithm that is used in the entire process. It is important to understand the programming algorithm that is used in the entire process of the programming experience. The following steps are taken in the design of the entire system.

The memory location that are needed for the memory lines are integrated in the design

The appropriate data bytes are integrated to the data lines
The correct combinations of the control signals are activated in the process
There is then the raising of EA/VPP to a level of 12 V that will be appropriate for operation of the high voltage system.
The robot system employs the use of IR detectors in order to achieve the movement. There is also the use of a temperature detector in the robot system. The choice of temperature sensors was arrived at because of the high cost of pyrometer sensors. The use of temperature sensors has a disadvantage of low-sensitivity and will affect the time that the sensor system will have to wait in order to get the signal that is needed. There will be the use of incandescent light for the sake of the system. It will still be effective in the entire system and process. The operation of the pump is done in a manual process. While operating in autonomous mode, there will be the use of IR sensors which will be used in the management and enhancement of the sensors in the entire process. There is a need to have a proper coding of the system so that it will enable the robot to move to the direction of the fire. There is a switch which is used to change between the use of manual mode or autonomous modes.

There are components which make up the robot. These components include:

IR sensors
Motor drivers
DC motors
IR sensors are components are made of IR Photo Diodes. They are used to achieve the function of sensors in the entire process. The sensors are connected to the ADC pins that connect to the microcontroller. The connection of the IR Photo Diodes will be connected as reverse bias in the system. It will be the case so that it will act as photo diodes. If this connection would not be the case, the diodes would be connected as a normal diodes. There are variations of the voltage which has been integrated in the system. The variations of the voltage for the sensors act as inputs to the input to the microcontroller. In this case, the robot is controlled with these variations (Su, Chia, Liou, & Su, 2013).
Joystick is a significant component which is used in the control of the direction of the robot. The terminals of the joystick have been connected to the ADC pins of the microcontroller. The joystick is taken as the potentiometer and that there are potential variations which have been made in the design of the robot. The variations that will be given to the robot due to the voltage variations will enable the operation of the robot to be achieved in the entire process.
The motor drivers have been included in the design of the robot system because it helps to guide the robot in the direction which it will take. The movement of the robot is controlled by the motor drivers. The function of the motor drivers is to give high voltage and high current so that the motors can be run in the process. The motors are used in the project to enable the robot to move.
DC Motors are used in the project so that the rotation of the wheels will be achieved in the process. There is the use of simple DC motor in order to get the functionality of the DC motors. In the normal functioning and operation of the DC motors, electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy.
Pump is another component which is used in the extinguishing process of the fire. In this case, the pump is mechanical device and whose movements are achieved by other moving parts.

Performance assessment

The design of the system has been motivated by the need to have a solution that will prevent the recent rise in fires. It is with the hope that there will be a significant reduction of fire accidents in the world with the use of the robot. In the entire operation of the robot, there is no intervention of the human being (Min, Matson, Smith, & Dietz, 2014). There has been the development of sensor networks an maturity of the robot technology; they have enabled the use of mobile agents to achieve tasks that require external stimuli. It is the case even of the stimulus that is desired will require enormous mechanical action. It has provided an opportunity for the use of robots to achieve tasks which were considered to be risky if they would be performed by human beings. Fire-fighting has been a life-threatening adventure that has been an issue of concern for many people who are required to undertake these tasks.

Advantages of the fire robot system

There are advantages that are associated with the system. These advantages include:
There is reduction of dangerous incidences that are caused by fires.
There is improvement of the ecology and reduction of loss of human life from fire extinguishing adventures.
There is no need to have micro-controller programing
The operators work is reconstructed in the entire process
There are also some disadvantages that are associated with the fire robot system. These disadvantages include:i. it does not have the capability to predict the thoughts of the operator
ii. It is hard for the operator to operate the system when it has been set to be on autonomous mode. In this case, the operator will not be able to override the operation of the robot.

Detailed design

The circuit that has been implemented has two main sub-circuits. There is a black strip that the robot will have to follow in the first part. It is the very first design of the design. The achievement of this was done with the use of comparator circuit. It was done with the use of LDR which got the reference voltage was achieved with the use of the potentiometer. The phenomenon that helped in the building of the procedures was that of LDR characteristic. In this design, LDR resistance decreases as the intensity of light that fall on it increases. In this case, the light that is reflected on the white surface is more than the light that gets reflected on the black surface. For this case, the voltage that is registered on the positive terminal of the comparator is high for the period that the robot is moving over the white surface. In case there will be black surface coming under one of the LDR’s the motor which corresponds to the motor in question will come to a stop. In this case, the other LDR will move away from the black line. As a result, the output voltage of the Op-Amp has been varied according to the requirements of the design. Although this is the case, the current that is flowing through the Op-Amp output is some paltry mA. For there to be enough current, there was a need to have some current amplification in the entire process. The achievement of amplification was met with the use of Darlington-pair. It was used in the amplification process. There was a resistance of between 5-10 ohms for the motor. For this case, there was the use of follower circuit (Hardey, K., Corapcioglu, E., Mattis, Goadrich, & Jadud, 2012).
There was the use of LDR and IR receivers on the second part of the system. It is here that there was the use of dual Op-Amp LM358 to achieve the functionality. There was also the use of two comparator circuits. For the LDR, the working was the same as before. The working of the IR receiver was slight different because the voltage and not the resistance vary. The variation was according to the light intensity that was received in the entire process. For this case, the two ends of the IR-receiver had their connectons made to the ground.


In the paper, evaluation and description of a robot which would be useful in extinguishing fire without the intervention of the humans. In the normal monitoring process, there would have been someone who would be tasked with continuous monitoring. With fires, any delay in reactivation of the fire will bring with it untold damage.

Future scope and recommendations

The project has been motivated by the desire to have systems which will correct fire accidents in the future. At the moment, mostfires take place abnd cause damages to the land,ords there has been developments of mobile technoogie and sensor netwoks. It means that there is still a lot of potential for users to make use of the mobile netwrks snd come up with other innovations. The use of mobile technology can be used to have external stimuli perception. There is a need to have expertise and expert in programming in order to build robots. It is a process that will involve building motors, flame sensors, and wires. There are other components that will make up the robot in the entire process. There has been the development of sensor networks an maturity of the robot technology; they have enabled the use of mobile agents to achieve tasks that require external stimuli.


Hardey, K, Corapcioglu, E, Mattis, M, Goadrich, M& Jadud, M 201, July)exploring and evolving process-oriented control for real and virtual fire fighting robots. In Proceedings of the fourteenth international conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference (pp. 105-112). ACM.
Min, BC., Matson, ET, Smith, A, & Dietz, JE. 20014, February, Using directional antennas as sensors to assist fire-fighting robots in large scale fires. In Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2014 IEEE (pp. 360-365). IEEE.
Su, H. S., Chia, S. H., Liou, JW., & Su, KL 2013, Mobile Robots Based Intelligent Fire Detection and Escaping System. Journal of Computers, 8(5), 1298-1302.
Zinko, R., Jemeljanovs, V., & Sulojeva, J. (2011). Usage of Robots for the Increasing the Effectiveness of the Fire Protection. Safety of Technogenic Environment, 1, 75-80.

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WePapers. (2020, October, 12) Fire Robot Reports Example. Retrieved August 09, 2022, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/fire-robot-reports-example/
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Fire Robot Reports Example. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/fire-robot-reports-example/. Published Oct 12, 2020. Accessed August 09, 2022.

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