Good Essay On Political Science
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MAKING GLOBALIZATION WORK: JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ
Globalization refers to the process of integration and interaction of people, organizations, governments, and other stakeholders of different countries driven by the objectives of international investment and trade and aided by the advancement of information technology. It defines the movement of the world towards financial economic, communications, and trade integration as nations seeks to address the challenges undermining local productions and maximize the opportunities in other countries. The implication is that nations open their nationalistic and local perspectives to a wider and broader outlook where there are interconnection and interdependence among various nations. It implies that there may be the free transfer of capital, services, goods, and human resources across the national borders. However, globalization does not advocate the unhindered movement of people and labor because the nationalistic regulations govern such movement. Strict regulations must be adhered t when it comes to the movement of labor because deregulation in this context would lead to negative effects on developing nations. Smaller economies will be the victims of negative effects, as the movement of the workforce will favor the developed nations because they are in a better position to pay for professional services received.
The argument above is in line with the Stiglitz’s arguments in which he argues for the case of democratizing democracy. The author asserts that the essence of democracy was to create benefits that can be enjoyed by all nations of the world. However, this is not the case because of the various perceptions held by both developed and developing nations. Europe and America find it difficult and disadvantageous to outsource because of the potential of growth by other economies that will lead to fierce competition in the market. At the same time, the developing countries hold the conception the developed nations always tilt the economic tide against them. In both of these perspectives, the countries pay much attention to the corporate values and attributes of globalization while ignoring all the other advantages that emanate from a global village.
There is merit in the criticisms leveled against the opposing groups due to the numerous advantages that can be realized through globalization. It is possible to reform globalization through the politics of the world where nations should seek equal power during global forums. Stiglitz mentions that the important political issues affecting the reformation of globalization are influx of unskilled workers, inadequate democracy in the global economic and financial institutions, and the tendency of people to rely on local thinking in a highly globalized world. If the world wants to enjoy the benefits of a globalized world, it must evaluate and address these political issues (Stiglitz, 2012, p. 169).
The first issue is the increasing inequality and the looming threats from the practice of outsourcing economic production. President’s Bush’s advisor received much criticism for taking a positive stand on the benefits of outsourcing saying that it created more profits for the United States at reduced costs. There is growing inequality in terms of economic development due to the reluctance of the developed nations to outsource their production services. Most of these countries prefer to localize their production and create regional economies of scale where they can supply the finished products to developing countries at high prices. The inequality begins at this point because the poor countries have to spend more capital for the acquisition of goods and services produced in the developed markets. For this reason, the developed nations remain the preferred regions of employment because the economic status of the developed nations is less dynamic. There is little balance between job creation and job loss unlike in the developed nations. Europe and America transitioned from the agricultural sector to manufacturing. Today, the shift is in favor of the transition from the manufacturing sector to service provision. Being a part of the global community benefits these nations greatly because they have a ready market for the goods and services they produce. The developing countries, which rely primarily on agriculture and under-developed manufacturing, guarantee the availability of this market for the developed nations. However, full integration of the economies of the world can help transform the imbalance. For instance, India and China have witnessed rapid economic growth because of globalization (Stiglitz, 2012, p. 171).
It is important to note that the abolishing trade barriers and tariffs will lead to full integration immediately and the balancing of wages. If countries can manage to create full employment where the utilize the all the available labor for the production of output, then the liberalization of trade can increase the overall incomes of all nations. In response to these challenges of global inequity, the developed nations can ignore the challenge and accept the increasing inequity. Countries who take this position favor the trickledown effect on the economies of developing nations. The approach does not work because the number of losers from globalization outweighs the number of those of who gain.
The second issue is the democratic deficit, which defines the imbalance of political power and influence in global issues. Over the last two hundred years, nations of the world have learned to balance the effects of capitalism to ensure mutual benefits rather than losses. There is a democratic deficit in terms of the power of the global market because most nations have failed to guarantee that the international market lead to the improvement of the many lives in the world (Stiglitz, 2012, p. 276). The international market promote the growth and development of the rich at the expense of the poor. The United States and other Europeans nations have much influence in the management of global powers. They have veto powers where they can influence a global decision in their favor regardless of the implications on the other nations. In recent, the world has witnessed the rise of other global playmakers. A good example is Japan, which is part of the G8 nations of the United Nations Forum. However, China also has a significance influence in international forums because of its rapid economic growth and the ability to match levels of incomes generated by the world’s most industrialized nations. As much as there is the need to have global institutions, the legitimacy of their objectives for existence is a primary issue to consider.
In response to the lack of democracy in international institutions, the most prudent actions are a revision of the institutional framework or the careful evaluation of international decisions prior to their implementation. The institutional framework should not guarantee the balance of power in favor of some nations. In fact, it should create a forum where all members have equal power to influence the decisions made at the international forum. For instance, the framework should promote good enforcement of the international legal principles.
The last political issue that can help in the reformation of globalization is a diversification of the thoughts of people, both leaders and citizens. Globalization requires an open mind where the participants are willing to allow a mutually beneficial relationship without the focus on individualistic benefits. In addition, the problem of localized thinking is the inability to perceive the dysfunctional state of policies and strategies implemented locally. Countries may hold on to beliefs and policies that they believe fit the socio-political and economic states, which may not be the case. A global mindset allows them to be flexible and ready to adjust to changes when necessary to for the state to fulfill its obligations to the citizens. In order to resolve this global issue, it is important for nations to consider the highest levels of integration through social interaction events and education. It will help diversify people’s thinking and eliminate the challenges posed by localized thinking.
For many nations, the acceptance to join the global community seems to have been a wrong decision. They are on the losing end, as the developed nations seem to repatriate all the profits back to their advanced economies. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) statistics in most countries indicate better economic conditions but the reality is here is an erosion of the values of and good relations between the nations of the world. The effect of such erosion may be evident in the strained relationships between nations and clear opposition between the influential nations of the world. For instance, most of the developing nations are either pro-east of pro-west due to the ideological differences held by the opposing regions.
Essay 2: Strengthening the National Defense
Many of the American administrators have acknowledged and identified the acts of terrorism as one of the crucial security and political problem for the United States over the recent years. Nevertheless, under the administration of Clinton, Bush, and Obama, the United States has handled the issues of terrorism differently. For instance, in the Obama administration, there are fewer than 15,000 troops deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq compared to the 180,000 troops in the previous administration. Although these administrators have handled these issues of terrorism differently, mainly because of their distinct political views and ideologies concerning the issues of terrorism, there are various main strategies employed by these administration that bring out the differences in the approaches of handling the acts of terrorism. Most of these strategies fall under the security strategies of the national government by these administrations.
Having a strong military defense is the bedrock of the national security according to the administration. For this reason, to continue the maintenance of the military readiness and edge, there is a need for a continued approach of insisting on the necessary investment and reforms in the military forces as well s their families. With such initiatives, the military remain ready to deter as well as defeat the threats to the homeland, including defense against terrorist attack, cyber, and missile, while also mitigating the impacts of the natural disasters and potential attacks. Strengthening the national defense means that the military is postured internationally and globally to protect the citizens and their interests, provide disaster relief and humanitarian assistance, preserve the regional stability, and build the ability of the national partners to join the nation in meeting the security challenges.
With this strategy, the forces of the United States will continue defending the homeland, conducting operations of the global counterterrorism, assuring allies, and deterring aggression through engagement and forward presence. Additionally, if the deterrence fails, the US forces will have to be ready to project their power globally to conquer and deny aggression in various theaters. As compared to the other two administrations, the Obama administration approach to this strategy is varied. This administration posits that as continued modernization takes place, there will be the application of the lessons of the past drawdown. As such, although the military will be quite smaller, it will have to remain dominant in every aspect. With the assistance of the Congress, this administration seeks to end the sequestration as well as enact the critical reforms aimed at building a responsive and versatile force prepared for diverse sets of contingencies. This administration seeks to protect the investment in the foundational capacities, such as the nuclear deterrent and grow its investment in the crucial capacities like surveillance, intelligence, reconnaissance, and cyber.
Reinforcing the Homeland Security
Another strategy for meeting the challenges of terrorism and national security is by reinforcing the homeland security. The reason for this reinforcement is to develop a homeland security that continues to learn and adapt to the evolving hazards and threats. Different leadership and administration have different approaches to dealing with the strengthening of the homeland security. For instance, in Obama’s administration, there is an emphasis on the community-based efforts as well as the local programs of law enforcement to counter the violent homegrown extremism and protect the vulnerable individuals from the extremist ideologies, which could lead them to join various conflicts overseas or initiate attacks at home. Through these risk-based approaches, the nation has transnational organized criminal acts and terrorism through ways that promote the tourism, commerce, travel, and preserved the civil liberties.
In addition, there is more resilience and responsiveness when disaster strike or prevention fails as witnessed in Hurricane Sandy and the bombings at Boston Marathon. The elemental services that underpin the American society have to remain secure as well as functioning during hazards and diverse threats. For this reason, the Whole of Community strategy and approach is employed by the existent administration, bringing together the elements of the American society, including individuals, the local communities, the non-profit and private sectors, the faith-based organizations, and the levels of government in ensuring that the United States is resilient during adversities. The administration is working with the operators and the owners of the nation’s critical cyber as well as the physical infrastructure across multiple sectors including the financial, health, energy, and information technology sectors among others. The three administrations despite having the similar main strategies, the distinctive factor are their ideologies concerning the issues facing the country as evidenced by their different approaches to implementing these strategies.
Combating the Persistent Terrorism Threats
The threats of catastrophic attacks the homeland by terrorists from different regions have reduced, but it is persistent. Terrorist threats have gained traction in areas of limited opportunity, broken governance, and instability. The adversaries are not confined to distinct countries or regions. This administration suggests that the county has gained experience from the previous administration and put in place the substantial variations in the efforts of combating terrorism. The administration has shifted from the model of costly fighting, the large-scale ground warfare in Afghanistan and Iraq in which the nation, particularly the military, bore enormous burden. The administration is pursuing a sustainable approach, which prioritizes the targeted operations of counterterrorism, collective action with the responsible partners, and the increased efforts of preventing the growth of the violent radicalization and extremism, which drives the increased threats. The leadership and administration will remain essential to the disruption of the unprecedented flow of the foreign terrorists to and from the zones of conflict.
The administration and the nation will work to address multiple underlying conditions, which can assist in the fostering of violent extremism such as inequality, poverty, and repression. That is, supporting the alternatives to the extremist messaging and greater opportunities in the economic sectors for the disaffected youth and the women. In addition, with this strategy, the administration seeks to help in building the capacities of the most vulnerable communities and states to defeat the terrorists locally. The administration will work with the Congress to train and equip the local partners and offer operational support to build a foundation of the terrorist groups.
Building Capacity to Prevent Conflicts
Another strategy is building the capacity to prevent conflicts. It encompasses strengthening the international capacity of the United States to prevent conflicts within and among the states. The American leadership and diplomacy, with assistance from a strong military base, remain elemental to deterring the future activities of inter-state provocation and aggression by reaffirming the security commitments to partners and allies, investing in their capacities to withstand various elements of coercion, imposing various costs on those threatening their neighbors or violate the fundamental norms, and embedding actions within wide regional strategies.
Within the states, the nexus of the cases or situations of widespread grievance and weak governance allow the extremism to prosper, violent and non-state actors to rise, and conflicts to overtake the state structures. In order meet these issues, this strategy is essential because it allows for continued cooperation with the partners and multilateral organizations to deal with the root causes of conflicts before erupting. The administration prefers collaborating with the fragile states, which have genuine political commitment to the establishment of legitimate governance and provision for the people. The focus of the efforts with this strategy is on the proven areas of impact and need, such as enabling equitable and effective service delivery, inclusive politics, reforming the sectors of the rule of law and security, combating the cases of organized crime and corruption.
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