Good Example Of Theories And Theorists Research Paper
There are various forms of theories applicable in qualitative and quantitative research (Willig, 2013). They play a major role in provision of a comprehensive and complex conceptual understanding of issues that cannot be underpinned for instance: Reasons for interaction between people and how institutions operate (Willig, 2013). As such, the application of theories in research is considered a “lens” through, which a researcher sees complicated research challenges as well as social issues. This involves a focus on varying forms of data and provision of structure or a framework through, which an analysis can be performed.
Taking a case scenario of a qualitative study for instance studying why culture is created in a specific way, there may not be a single approach to facilitate the understanding of this topic. In this aspect, various approaches may be directed to determine its different aspects. An example of a study that aims to determine the level of patients-nurses interacts within a medical facility; a number of theories may be applied to enhance its understanding. One of the theoretical approaches that may be applied to enhance the understanding of this research topic is phenomenological theoretical approach (Willig, 2013). This approach would basically engage the researcher through interviews, to determine the meaning the doctors and nurses associated with their interactions as well as categories employed. This paper will explore and provide an explanation of two key theorists in my field, sources of the theorists and the key tenets of their theories. Additionally, it will provide an assessment of the relationship of the identified theories and the reasons why the theories are important in the research that I intend to perform.
Theory of Reasoned Action
The concept of the Theory of Reasoned Action involves a framework applied in the prediction of behavioral intention, prediction of behavior as well as spanning predictions of attitude. It was develop in 1975 and modified in 1980 by Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein (recapp.etr.org). According to this theory, an intention is basically a probability that one will behave in a certain manner in certain conditions, regardless of whether they behave that way (recapp.etr.org). An example may occur when a person plans or intends to stop drinking alcohol, but may not or may follow his/her plans. An explanation of this theory is available in an online source published in the Online Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy and Prevention website.
Basic Tenets of the Theory of Reasoned Action
The theory of Reasoned Action Approach is based on various tenets: The first basic tenet of this theory is behavior: These are basically events that can be observed and are composed of four main elements, which are; the specific action, target towards which the action is intended to affect, context of performing the action and the period/time of performance (recapp.etr.org). The other basic tenet of this theory is intention. Martin and Icek define intentions as the probability that a person will perform a perceived behavior. Moreover, perceived behavioral control is another basic tenet of the Theory of Reasoned Action; it entails perception of the society towards the magnitude of their capacity to act or behave in a certain manner. Attitude is another tenet of this theory, Martin and Icek asserts that, it is latent disposition associated with responding to psychological object with a degree of desire or undesired. Consequently, perceived norm is another pertinent tenet of this theory; it means a perception of social pressure to act or not act in a certain manner. On the other hand, this theory considers descriptive norms, which is defined as the perception that a person is not acting in accordance to prevailing or behaviors in action.
Eysenck’s Personality Theory
Eysenck’s Theory was developed by Hans Eysenck in 1952, modified in 1967 and subsequently in 1982 (Furnham & Petrides, 2014). It is considered an influential model in issues ascribed to the understanding of personality. The development of this theory was facilitated after Eysenck engaged in analysis of results collected from personality questionnaires. In this analysis he identified three main categories of personality: Psychoticism, neuroticism and extraversion. Basically, Eysenck’s theory indicates that the three dimension of personality are existence among people living in uniform environments i.e. in his research, he identified that soldiers were linked by certain facets of personality traits, despite the fact that they were of different characters (Furnham & Petrides, 2014). Information ascribed to this theory can be found in the Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, authored by Adrian Furnham and Petrides.
Basic Tenets of Eysenck’s Personality Theory
As aforementioned, the three basic tenets of Eysenck’s Personality Theories are: Neuroticism, which involves a category of people ranging from those who are nervous to those who are quite normal and calm. The other tenet is extraversion-introversion; it is a tenet that basically involves categorization of people in their level of confident and calmness when expression personal issues i.e. extroverts who depend on simulation and tend to expression their personal opinions and emotions (Eysenck, 2013). Consequently, the third tenet is psychoticism characterized by people who have exhibited psychotic traits.
Relationship between the Two Theories
There are certain aspects of relationship between the two theories; to begin with, they are based on tenets/elements that deal directly with personality. In the Theory of Reasoned Action, personal and emotional issues such as attitudes, behavior and perception are used as the main elements of decision-making. The application of personal and emotional elements to describe an individual’s character traits is also applicable in Eysenck’s Personality theory for instance: Hans Eysenck applies emotional concepts of extraverts-introverts to categorize individuals with certain behaviors, attitudes and emotions.
Moreover, the two theories exhibit relationship in the sense that their dimension of argument is based on variety of tenets i.e. Theory of Reasoned Action relies on the tenets of attitude, behavior and perception. A similar case is also evident in Eysenck’s Personality Theory, where Eysenck categorizes individuals in accordance to their behavior using; the tenets of extravert-introvert, neuroticism and psychoticism.
How these Theories are Important to my Disciplines and Research Intend to Perform
The understanding of these theories is crucial for any student and researcher that aspires to study social issues. They provide one with an idea on how he/she can approach certain social contexts when conduction qualitative or quantitative social research. As a student, who aspires to perform social researches, I believe that these theories will play a significant role in the determination of how I can categorize participants in m research i.e. according to their attitudes and behavior. Moreover, I believe that knowledge obtained from these theories will enhance my understanding on various issues that are experienced by persons engaging in psychoanalytic researches.
Furnham, A., & Petrides, K. V. (2014). Eysenck’s Personality Theory. In Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (pp. 1538-1545). Springer New York.
Eysenck, H. J. (2013). Crime and personality. Routledge.
(n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2015, from http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.TheoriesDetail&PageID=517
Kelly, P. M. (2013, September). Comments on ‘Response to “The Phenomenological Theory of Martensite Crystallography (PTMC) versus the Topological Model (TM)”’. In International Conference on Martensitic Transformations (ICOMAT) (pp. 129-133). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Willig, C. (2013). Introducing qualitative research in psychology. McGraw-Hill International.