Good Literature Review About Epilepsy

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Epilepsy, Seizure, Brain, Nursing, Patient, Disorders, Medicine, Health

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Published: 2020/12/31


Epilepsy is a protracted disorder, the closure of which is recurring, wanton seizures. Many individuals with epilepsy have further than one kind of seizure and can have other indications of neurological complications as well. Occasionally clinical history, EEG testing, family account and viewpoint are similar amongst a group of individuals with epilepsy. In these circumstances, their disorder can be rendered as a definite epilepsy syndrome. The humanoid brain is the basis of epilepsy in human. Even though the symptoms associated with seizure may have an impact on any body region, the electrical happenings that yield the symptoms transpire in the brain. The locality of that incident, how it extends and to what degree the brain is affected, besides how long it persists all have weighty effects. These features determine the oddity of a seizure in addition to its effect on the patient (MIDDLETON et al., 2011).
Experiencing seizures plus epilepsy may also touch one's security, relations, driving and even work. The manner in which epilepsy is observed or how individuals are stigmatized normally is a larger problem compared to the seizures. An individual is diagnosed with condition of epilepsy in the event that they have encountered not less than two seizures that were not as a result of some recognized and rescindable medical disorder such as withdrawal from alcohol or tremendously abject blood sugar. The seizures experienced in epilepsy can be linked to a brain damage or a family trend, but regularly the basis is completely unidentified. The term epilepsy has no indication regarding the cause of the individual's seizures as well as their rigorousness. Epilepsy is projected to affect approximately 500,000 individuals in the UK. This implies that virtually one person in every 100 individuals has the disorder (SILVERSTEIN & SILVERSTEIN 2011).

Symptoms of Epilepsy

The key symptoms associated with epilepsy are recurrent seizures. There exist different kinds of seizure, subject to the region of the brain involved. Individuals with epilepsy encounter any sort of seizure, though most individuals have a steady outline of symptoms. Seizures can ensue when one is asleep or awake. There are focal seizures in which only a minor brain region is involved. Generalized seizures comprise most or the entire brain being affected. Particular seizures are referred to as unclassified seizures since they fail to exist in any of these categories (MCGOWEN 2010).

Partial Seizures

Simple partial seizures normally occur when an individual remains entirely conscious throughout. Symptoms associated with this seizure can comprise an overall strange sensation that is difficult to describe. Such feelings may include an extreme sentiment that occasions have occurred before or feeling a rare taste or smell. These attacks are occasionally identified as warnings, since they might be an indication that a different form of seizure is about to occur. Therefore, it is able to warn individuals around about the probability of a different seizure (CARSON 2012).
Complex partial seizures on the other hand occur when an individual loses the intellect of consciousness and can’t recollect what ensued moments after the seizure. The symptoms associated with this kind of seizure usually involve actually odd and arbitrary bodily conduct for instance spanking one’s lips, chafing the hands, producing unsystematic noises or even moving the arms about. When an individual is under the attack of this seizure, it is impossible to answer to anybody else, and there is no reminiscence of the occasion (CARSON 2012).

Generalized Seizures.

There exist six different kinds of generalized seizures. Absence seizures initially known as Petit mal mostly affect children. They affect a person whereby they lose consciousness of their environments, typically for about 15 seconds. The individual will appear to stare blankly into space, though some individuals will disrupt their eyes or nip their lips. The individual in no doubt has no reminiscence regarding the seizure (GOODFELLOW 2011). Absences can happen a number of times in a day. They may have an impact on the performance of a child at school and are perilous if they happen at a precarious time, for instance passing a road full of activity.
Myoclonic seizures cause twitching of the legs, upper part of the body or arms as though a person has experienced an electric shock. They frequently only proceed for a division of a second not to forget that an individual usually remains cognizant during the time. Myoclonic jerks habitually occur hours as soon as a person wakes up and may befall in mishmash with other categories of generalized seizures (PEACOCK & THOMPSON 2010). Clonic seizures usually have the same nature of jerking as myoclonic jerks, apart from the fact that symptoms are elongated, customarily two minutes. Loss of awareness may as well occur. Atonic seizures affect all muscles to abruptly relax, imposing a chance for the individual to tumble to the ground posing a risk of injury.
Tonic seizures on the other hand cause the muscles to abruptly become rigid, resulting in loss of balance in the individual. Similar atonic seizures, the injury risk is probable (SCHMIDT & WILDER 2013). Convulsions which are normally referred to as Tonic-clonic seizures occur in two stages. The body will primarily become rigid and then the arms plus legs will initiate twitching. An individual loses awareness and some individuals usually wet themselves. The seizure typically occurs in few minutes, despite the fact that it can last more time (SAKEL 2011).

What to Do If Someone Has a Seizure

There are several guidelines on what to do in the event an individual is experiencing a convulsion. It is vital to guard them from wounds by eradicating any hazardous or possibly harmful items close, and cushioning the head of the person with one’s hands or soft substance. It is not advisable to confine them or endeavor to move the patients if not they are in instant danger and nothing should be put in their mouth (SAKEL 2011). One should remain calm, and accompany them up to the time they reclaim consciousness. As soon as the convulsions are over, it is advisable to put the patients into the repossession position up to the moment they completely recover (BJORKLUND 2011).

Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus refers to any seizure that persists 30 minutes and over, or a sequence of seizures whereby the individual fails to regain awareness in between. This is a medicinal crisis and necessitates treatment urgent. One can get training how to treat status epilepticus if they are specialized to take care for individuals suffering from epilepsy, but in case one doesn’t have such training, it is significant to call for an ambulance instantly if one suspects the condition (ROUTH 2014).

Causes of Epilepsy

It is worth noting that there exists no cause associated with more than a half of all epilepsy cases. In case of a distinguishable cause, it typically encompasses the brain getting affected by a particular disorder. The brain comprises a subtle mix housing electrical impulses, nerve cells as well as chemicals usually referred to as neurotransmitters. Any injury has the latent to upset the mechanisms of the brain thus triggering seizures. Two key classes of epilepsy do exist which entail Idiopathic epilepsy, a condition whereby no ostensible reason for epilepsy is found, but a family history may exist, signifying that the disorder is inherited. On the other hand, symptomatic epilepsy indicates that the cause of the epilepsy is known (HANSCOMB & HUGHES 2014).

Idiopathic Epilepsy

In several cases, no cause associated with the occurrence of the epilepsy can be fathomed. This may perhaps be since medical apparatus are not innovative enough to note some forms of damage, or since the epilepsy possibly has a hereditary cause. Many investigators have recommended that minor genetic variations in the brain may perhaps be the cause behind this disorder. The Current investigation is seeking for flaws, in particular genes that could affect electrical conduction in the brain. Several studies have been conducted over time, however, no sturdy connotation has been established among any specific genes and occurrence of epilepsy (VANDER HOOK 2010).

Symptomatic Epilepsy

Causes linked with symptomatic epilepsy entails cerebrovascular illnesses which are usually problems linked with blood vessels meant to supply the brain. These illnesses include subarachnoid hemorrhage or stroke. Austere head injuries, brain cancers, drug abuse as well as alcohol misuse are also probable causes of symptomatic epilepsy. Furthermore, contagions that can injure the brain, for instance meningitis, difficulties during birth that may result to a baby being deprived of oxygen for example the umbilical cord becoming twisted or trampled during labor are also probable causes (ASHLEY 2011). Finally, some regions of the brain may fail to develop accordingly causing the individual to suffer from epilepsy. Though some of the named difficulties might cause epilepsy, particularly at infancy period, symptomatic epilepsy is usually more pronounced in grownup people, mostly those who have attained 60 years and over (ENGEL 2010).

Seizure Triggers

For various individuals with epilepsy, it is worth noting that seizures can ensue with no apparent trigger. Nevertheless, certain situations or the use of particular substances may at times pave the way for a seizure. These comprise stress, consumption of alcohol, monthly periods, sleeplessness, some medicines and unlawful drugs in females and flashing lights which is not a common trigger and only affects 5% of individuals with epilepsy and the condition is referred to as photosensitive epilepsy. It is important to keep a diary that takes into the account of seizures that occur daily so as to unravel what might be triggering the seizures. With time it might become possible to avoid certain things after discovering that they in some way trigger the seizures (LLEWELLYN 2013).

Diagnosing Epilepsy

It is usually not easy to diagnose epilepsy within a short time. It is important to note that at times, it is not possible to confirm whether an individual is suffering from epilepsy unless more than one seizure occur. The reasons as to why it is difficult to diagnose is the fact that conditions like panic attacks and migraines effect symptoms similar to those found in epilepsy (ELLIOT-WRIGHT 2014).

Describing your seizures

The key pieces of data required to identify epilepsy are usually the information about an individual’s seizure. The doctor in most cases asks the patient on any notable symptoms before the seizures occurred, for instance, strange feelings or presence of any warning signs that can be linked to the seizures. In case a person is unable to recollect about the incident, it is crucial to access information from a witness of the seizure. The doctor may also ask about personal or medical history of the patient and if the patient probably uses any sort of drugs, medication or alcohol (ELLIOT-WRIGHT 2014). Further tests, for instance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) scan can be applied to diagnose the disorder. In case the tests fail to show presence of the disorder, it is quite probable that an individual still suffers from epilepsy.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An EEG test is able to notice rare brain activity related to epilepsy by gauging the electrical motion of the brain via electrodes positioned on a patient’s scalp. When the test is being carried out, the patient may be requested to breathe intensely or close their eyes besides observing a flashing light. The test is immobilized instantly if it appears the flashing light may perhaps activate a seizure. In some instances, an EEG can be conducted while an individual is asleep normally referred to as sleep EEG or the patient may be given a transportable EEG footage device to screen the brain motion in 24 hours referred to as ambulatory EEG (ELLIOT-WRIGHT 2014).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan

This is usually a type of scan whereby the use of robust magnetic fields as well as radio waves is initiated to create comprehensive descriptions of the interior of the body. It is useful particularly when the causes of epilepsy are suspected epilepsy since it can habitually detect conceive grounds of the disorder, for instance faults in the configuration of the patient’s brain or existence of a brain cancer. The scanner is usually a big tube that comprises powerful magnets. The patients positions himself inside the duct throughout the scan (SCAMBLER 2013).

Treating epilepsy

In order to control seizures, epilepsy treatment comes in handy despite the fact that not every individual requires the treatment. Avoidance of things that are known to trigger epilepsy for instance, alcohol and sleep deficiency can be used to control the disorder in general. It is vital to note that despite some individuals may require treatment of epilepsy throughout their lives, it is not always common to everyone (STEFAN & THEODORE 2012). The disorder may be present in some part of a person’s life only to vanish in later stages when one gets older particularly if the seizures occur in childhood.
Generally, Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the number one choice when it comes to treatment of the disorder. It is evident that more than 70% of those individuals use AEDs to control epilepsy. However, the drugs are used once a person is diagnosed with the disorder, particularly after the second seizure occurs since it gives clear indications about the condition. In some instances, it is possible to start treatment after the first seizure occurs mostly if an EEG reveals that the brain activity has a link to epilepsy. If an MRI scan is conducted and damages are shown in the brain, which are caused by conditions like a stroke, one can start treatment immediately (STEFAN & THEODORE 2012).
A surgery can be conducted to remove the affected part of the brain if it does not have adverse effects such as disability or damage. If the surgery is successful, it is possible to cure the disorder. A small device can be implanted under the skin of a patient on the chest can be an option if at all surgery deems unfit. The device triggers yagus nerve stimulus to the brain. In the case of children whose seizures are unmanageable, a diet that is special is administered to them. AEDs do not realistically treat epilepsy but are a successful way to prevent seizures from occurring. The AEDs mainly alter the levels of chemicals in the brain necessary to bear electrical impulses thus dropping seizure occurrences. Some of the common AEDs used comprise carbamazepine, sodium valproate, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, ethosuximide and lamotrigine (LLEWELLYN 2013).

Taking AEDs

AEDs are obtainable in a number of diverse forms, comprising capsules, tablets, liquids as well as syrups. It is imperative you trail any advice concerning when to administer AEDs and the quantity to take. It is not advisable to abruptly stop consuming an AED since doing so may result to a seizure. Specialist usually start an individual on a small dose of the drug, then progressively increase it in safe restrictions until the seizures halt, or if a patient develops side-effects (LLEWELLYN 2013). If one AED fails to control seizures, an extra drug may be tried by regularly introducing the fresh medication as well as slowly dropping the dosage of the previous one. The objective is to attain maximum seizure regulation with least side effects, by means of the lowermost possible dosage of a lone medicine. Trying a dissimilar type of AED is desirable to taking additional AED, though a mixture of medicines may occasionally be required to regulate seizures.
While an individual is takes the AEDs, they should avoid taking other kinds of medicine even the over-the-counter drugs or paired medicines, for instance St John's Wort, devoid of discussing the situation first with their epilepsy professional. Other medications may perhaps have a hazardous interface with the AED an individual is using resulting in a seizure. Sodium valproate for instance, cannot be recommended for women who are their childbearing age since there is a jeopardy, it may possibly cause bodily defects or developing glitches in an unborn child. It can be prescribed if an alternative does not exist or in case a patient will not have unfavorable response towards the drug, according to an assessment conducted by a specialist (STEFAN & THEODORE 2012).
The specialist may as well require to check if the patient is using a dependable method of contraception. In case the patient fails to have a seizure attack for more than a year, stopping the administration of the drug is recommended. The specialist often talks with the patient about the appropriateness of stopping the taking of the, drug and the manner in which this can be performed (ROUTH 2014).

Side Effects

Side effects are usually common, particularly when one starts to take the AED drugs. Nevertheless, the side effects are short-lived and disappear after several days. The exact side effects one may encounter are influenced by the medicine one is taking, but overall prevalent side effects linked to AEDs comprise drowsiness, a privation of energy, anxiety, headaches, uncontainable tremor, distended gums, hair loss or undesirable hair growth and rashes If an individual has a rash, it signifies that one is hypersensitive to the medicine thus medical intervention should be looked for instantly. At times, a patient may encounter symptoms comparable to being drunk for instance wobbliness, poor attentiveness and nausea, particularly if the dose is excessively high (ROUTH 2014). Epilepsy has diverse effects on different individuals who are affected thus each of the patient’s experience is dissimilar to the rest. However, it is important to endorse several features that can aid, particularly when it comes to coping with this kind of disorder that is dangerous if one is unaware of how to deal with it (SCAMBLER 2013).

Triggers and Medication

It is important to note that knowing more about things that might initiate the seizure is vital so as to evade them and reduce chances of encountering the seizures. The more an individual is aware of these triggers, the more it is easier to control the seizures. It is also advisable to keep a record of the moments one encounters the seizures so as to unravel the triggers (SCAMBLER 2013). Anti-epilepsy prescription regulates seizures in approximately 70% of individuals. Working hand in hand with the specialist to discover the medicine that fits the patient best, in addition to taking it precisely as prescribed, is undoubtedly the most operational way an individual can live healthy with epilepsy. Failure to take the whole dosage of medication normally makes the patient more prospective to encountering the seizures (ENGEL 2010).

Regular Reviews and Self Care

Regular reviews should be conducted on the disorder and its treatment. The specialist or the neurologist can carry out this task to ensure that the track the progress of the health status of the patient. The reviews require to be conducted yearly and at times more regularly if the epilepsy is not properly controlled. Self-care is also an important part of day-to-day life. It includes taking charge for personal health and welfare with aid from specialists, particularly to those who suffer from epilepsy (WILLIAMS 2010).
Self-care comprises what an individual does every day in order to remain fit and uphold good bodily and psychological health, avert illness or misfortunes and pay more attention on negligible ailments in addition to lasting conditions. Individuals with continuing circumstances can profit hugely from being maintained to self-care. Through self-care, it is possible to live a lengthy life, encounter less pain, apprehension, fatigue and depression, and have a healthier quality life and elevated independence (ENGEL 2010).

Healthy Living

In conclusion, taking diets that are healthier as well as exercising regularly can be a stepping stone towards preventing conditions such as a variety of cancers and heart related diseases. Proper nutrition and exercise will reduce body fatigue and ensure stress is released and bones are made stronger. Drinking should also be controlled since it is associated with propagating seizures and make the side effects of AEDs worsened. Excessive drinking is as well associated with interrupted sleep patterns, thus increasing chances of experiencing a seizure. Regulating the levels of alcohol consumption may help to reduce the risk linked to heavy drinking. Drinking no more than the recommended daily limits may help reduce this risk (ROUTH 2014).

Reference List

ASHLEY, M. (2011). Seizures. Leicester, Matador.
BJORKLUND, R. (2011). Epilepsy. New York, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
BRODIE, M. J., SCHACHTER, S. C., & KWAN, P. K. L. (2013). Epilepsy. Oxford, Health Press.
CARSON, M. K. (2012). Epilepsy. Springfield, NJ, Enslow Publishers.
ELLIOT-WRIGHT, S. (2014). Epilepsy. Chicago, Ill, Raintree.
ENGEL, J. (2010). Seizures and epilepsy. Philadelphia, F.A. Davis Co.
GOODFELLOW, G. (2011). Epilepsy. San Diego, Calif, Lucent Books.
HANSCOMB, A., & HUGHES, L. (2014). Epilepsy. London, Ward Lock.
LLEWELLYN, C. (2013). Epilepsy. North Mankato, MN, Thameside Press.
MCGOWEN, T. (2010). Epilepsy. New York, F. Watts.
MIDDLETON, A. H., ATTWELL, A. A., & WALSH, G. O. (2011). Epilepsy. Boston, Little, Brown.
PEACOCK, J., & THOMPSON, J. (2010). Epilepsy. Mankato, MN, LifeMatters.
ROUTH, K. (2014). Epilepsy. Chicago, Ill, Heinemann Library.
SAKEL, M. (2011). Epilepsy. New York, Philosophical Library.
SCAMBLER, G. (2013). Epilepsy. London, Tavistock/Routledge.
SCHMIDT, R. P., & WILDER, B. J. (2013). Epilepsy. Philadelphia, F.A. Davis Co.
SILVERSTEIN, A., & SILVERSTEIN, V. B. (2011). Epilepsy. Philadelphia, Lippincott.
STEFAN, H., & THEODORE, W. H. (2012). Epilepsy. Edinburgh, Elsevier.
VANDER HOOK, S. (2010). Epilepsy. Mankato, Minn, Smart Apple Media.
WILLIAMS, M. E. (2010). Epilepsy. Farmington Hills, MI, Greenhaven Press.

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